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      The Role of Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Monitoring in Growth Hormone-Treated Children

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          Abstract

          Growth hormone (GH) therapy has evolved rapidly over the past decade, and continuing research has established a clear role for therapeutic GH in a wide spectrum of disorders, including idiopathic GH deficiency (childhood- and adult-onset), Turner syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, small-for-gestational age children with failure of catch-up growth, AIDS-related catabolism, children with chronic renal failure, and idiopathic short stature. Although GH is used therapeutically in a wide variety of conditions, actual guidelines regarding the logistics of GH dosing continue to evolve, with data emerging regarding efficacy and safety. This review proposes a role for insulin-like growth factor I measurement in optimizing GH dosing.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Prediction of response to growth hormone treatment in short children born small for gestational age: analysis of data from KIGS (Pharmacia International Growth Database).

          A model was developed that allows physicians to individualize GH treatment in children born short for gestational age (SGA) who fail to show spontaneous catch-up growth. Data from children (n = 613) in a large pharmacoepidemiological survey, the KIGS (Pharmacia International Growth Database), or who had participated in clinical trials were used to develop the model. Another group of similar children (n = 68) from KIGS was used for validation. In the first year of GH treatment, the growth response correlated positively with GH dose, weight at the start of GH treatment, and midparental height SD score and negatively with age at treatment start. Using this model, 52% of the variability of the growth response could be explained, with a mean error SD of 1.3 cm. GH dose was the most important response predictor (35% of variability), followed by age at treatment start. The second year growth response was best predicted by a three-parameter model (height velocity in yr 1 of treatment, age at start of treatment, and GH dose), which accounted for 34% of the variability, with an error SD of 1.1 cm. The first year response to GH treatment was the most important predictor of the second year response, accounting for 29% of the variability. No statistically significant differences between the predicted and observed growth responses were found when the models were applied to the validation groups. In conclusion, using simple variables, we have developed a model that can be used in clinical practice to adjust the GH dose to achieve the desired growth response in patients born SGA. Furthermore, this model can be used to provide patients with a realistic expectation of treatment and may help to identify compliance problems or other underlying causes of treatment failure.
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            Long-Term Mortality after Transsphenoidal Surgery and Adjunctive Therapy for Acromegaly

             B Swearingen (1998)
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              Growth hormone (GH) dose-response in young adults with childhood-onset GH deficiency: a two-year, multicenter, multiple-dose, placebo-controlled study.

              GH replacement therapy has been shown to improve abnormalities in body composition, bone mineral density (BMD), lipid profile, and other changes resulting from GH deficiency (GHD) in adults. There is, however, need to determine appropriate dosing in young adults who were treated for GHD as children, to bridge the interval between childhood (in which relatively high doses are used) and older adulthood (in which only lower doses are tolerated). This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study compares the safety and efficacy of two doses of GH (25 and 12.5 microg/kg.d) with placebo, maintained for 2 yr, in adults with GHD who were treated as children and were off GH for at least 1 yr (mean, 5.6 yr). The 64 treated subjects were less than 35 yr of age (mean, 23.8 yr) and had maximum serum GH responses, on retesting less than 5 microg/liter (mean, 0.7 micro g/liter). At baseline, 22% had spine BMD below -2 SD, 59% were overweight or obese, and 45% had serum total cholesterol more than 200 mg/dl. A significant dose response was seen for percent increase in spine BMD at 24 months (mean of 1.3%, 3.3%, and 5.2% in the placebo, 12.5-, and 25- microg/kg.d groups, respectively, P = 0.018). Both GH-treated groups had similar changes in body composition at 6 months (decreased fat mass, increased lean mass); however, some gains were subsequently lost in the lower dose group. A significant decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was seen only in the higher GH dose group. Significant changes were not observed in quality of life and echocardiographic measures. The groups were similar with regard to adverse events and laboratory measurements, except for a higher incidence of edema in the GH-treated groups. We conclude that this dose-response study confirms the benefits of GH-replacement therapy in GHD adults and indicates that, to achieve treatment goals in younger adults, higher doses may be needed than those generally used in older adults.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7837-0
                978-3-318-01157-9
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2004
                February 2005
                10 March 2005
                : 62
                : Suppl 1
                : 59-65
                Affiliations
                Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Mattel Children’s Hospital at UCLA, Los Angeles, Calif., USA
                Article
                80760 Horm Res 2004;62(suppl 1):59–65
                10.1159/000080760
                15761234
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 30, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Efficacy

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