2
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors and Myotoxicity

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors specifically inhibit HMG-CoA reductase in the liver, thereby inhibiting the biosynthesis of cholesterol. These drugs significantly reduce plasma cholesterol level and long term treatment reduces morbidity and mortality associated with coronary heart disease. The tolerability of these drugs during long term administration is an important issue. Adverse reactions involving skeletal muscle are not uncommon, and sometimes serious adverse reactions involving skeletal muscle such as myopathy and rhabdomyolysis may occur, requiring discontinuation of the drug. Occasionally, arthralgia, alone or in association with myalgia, has been reported. In this article we review scientific data provided via Medline, adverse drug reaction case reports from the Swedish Drug Information System (SWEDIS) and the World Health Organization's International Drug Information System (INTDIS) database, focusing on HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor-related musculoskeletal system events. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 is the main isoenzyme involved in the metabolic transformation of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Individuals with both low hepatic and low gastrointestinal tract levels of CYP3A4 expression may be at in increased risk of myotoxicity due to potentially higher HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor plasma concentrations. The reported incidence of myotoxic reactions in patients treated with this drug class varies from 1 to 7% and varies between different agents. The risk of these serious adverse reactions is dose-dependent and may increase when HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are prescribed concomitantly with drugs that inhibit their metabolism, such as itraconazole, cyclosporin, erythromycin and nefazodone. Electrolyte disturbances, infections, major trauma, hypoxia as well as drugs of abuse may increase the risk of myotoxicity. It is important that the potentially serious adverse reactions are recognised and correctly diagnosed so that the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor may at once be withdrawn to prevent further muscular damage.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 91

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          The Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trial Results

            (1984)
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            The effect of pravastatin on coronary events after myocardial infarction in patients with average cholesterol levels. Cholesterol and Recurrent Events Trial investigators.

            In patients with high cholesterol levels, lowering the cholesterol level reduces the risk of coronary events, but the effect of lowering cholesterol levels in the majority of patients with coronary disease, who have average levels, is less clear. In a double-blind trial lasting five years we administered either 40 mg of pravastatin per day or placebo to 4159 patients (3583 men and 576 women) with myocardial infarction who had plasma total cholesterol levels below 240 mg per deciliter (mean, 209) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels of 115 to 174 mg per deciliter (mean, 139). The primary end point was a fatal coronary event or a nonfatal myocardial infarction. The frequency of the primary end point was 10.2 percent in the pravastatin group and 13.2 percent in the placebo group, an absolute difference of 3 percentage points and a 24 percent reduction in risk (95 percent confidence interval, 9 to 36 percent; P = 0.003). Coronary bypass surgery was needed in 7.5 percent of the patients in the pravastatin group and 10 percent of those in the placebo group, a 26 percent reduction (P=0.005), and coronary angioplasty was needed in 8.3 percent of the pravastatin group and 10.5 percent of the placebo group, a 23 percent reduction (P=0.01). The frequency of stroke was reduced by 31 percent (P=0.03). There were no significant differences in overall mortality or mortality from noncardiovascular causes. Pravastatin lowered the rate of coronary events more among women than among men. The reduction in coronary events was also greater in patients with higher pretreatment levels of LDL cholesterol. These results demonstrate that the benefit of cholesterol-lowering therapy extends to the majority of patients with coronary disease who have average cholesterol levels.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Prevention of coronary heart disease with pravastatin in men with hypercholesterolemia. West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study Group.

              Lowering the blood cholesterol level may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. This double-blind study was designed to determine whether the administration of pravastatin to men with hypercholesterolemia and no history of myocardial infarction reduced the combined incidence of nonfatal myocardial infarction and death from coronary heart disease. We randomly assigned 6595 men, 45 to 64 years of age, with a mean (+/- SD) plasma cholesterol level of 272 +/- 23 mg per deciliter (7.0 +/- 0.6 mmol per liter) to receive pravastatin (40 mg each evening) or placebo. The average follow-up period was 4.9 years. Medical records, electrocardiographic recordings, and the national death registry were used to determine the clinical end points. Pravastatin lowered plasma cholesterol levels by 20 percent and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 26 percent, whereas there was no change with placebo. There were 248 definite coronary events (specified as nonfatal myocardial infarction or death from coronary heart disease) in the placebo group, and 174 in the pravastatin group (relative reduction in risk with pravastatin, 31 percent; 95 percent confidence interval, 17 to 43 percent; P < 0.001). There were similar reductions in the risk of definite nonfatal myocardial infarctions (31 percent reduction, P < 0.001), death from coronary heart disease (definite cases alone: 28 percent reduction, P = 0.13; definite plus suspected cases: 33 percent reduction, P = 0.042), and death from all cardiovascular causes (32 percent reduction, P = 0.033). There was no excess of deaths from noncardiovascular causes in the pravastatin group. We observed a 22 percent reduction in the risk of death from any cause in the pravastatin group (95 percent confidence interval, 0 to 40 percent; P = 0.051). Treatment with pravastatin significantly reduced the incidence of myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular causes without adversely affecting the risk of death from noncardiovascular causes in men with moderate hypercholesterolemia and no history of myocardial infarction.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Safety
                Drug Safety
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0114-5916
                2000
                2000
                : 22
                : 6
                : 441-457
                Article
                10.2165/00002018-200022060-00003
                10877038
                © 2000

                Comments

                Comment on this article