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      Propionibacterium spp.—source of propionic acid, vitamin B12, and other metabolites important for the industry

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          Bacteria from the Propionibacterium genus consists of two principal groups: cutaneous and classical. Cutaneous Propionibacterium are considered primary pathogens to humans, whereas classical Propionibacterium are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Bacteria from the Propionibacterium genus are capable of synthesizing numerous valuable compounds with a wide industrial usage. Biomass of the bacteria from the Propionibacterium genus constitutes sources of vitamins from the B group, including B12, trehalose, and numerous bacteriocins. These bacteria are also capable of synthesizing organic acids such as propionic acid and acetic acid. Because of GRAS status and their health-promoting characteristics, bacteria from the Propionibacterium genus and their metabolites (propionic acid, vitamin B12, and trehalose) are commonly used in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, food, and other industries. They are also used as additives in fodders for livestock. In this review, we present the major species of Propionibacterium and their properties and provide an overview of their functions and applications. This review also presents current literature concerned with the possibilities of using Propionibacterium spp. to obtain valuable metabolites. It also presents the biosynthetic pathways as well as the impact of the genetic and environmental factors on the efficiency of their production.

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          Most cited references 190

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            Lactic acid bacteria produce a variety of bacteriocins that have recently come under detailed investigation. The biochemical and genetic characteristics of these antimicrobial proteins are reviewed and common elements are discussed between the different classes of bacteriocins produced by these Gram-positive bacteria.
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              Microbial production of vitamin B12.

               Robin Warren,  H Barg,  D Jahn (2002)
              One of the most alluring and fascinating molecules in the world of science and medicine is vitamin B12 (cobalamin), which was originally discovered as the anti pernicious anemia factor and whose enigmatic complex structure is matched only by the beguiling chemistry that it mediates. The biosynthesis of this essential nutrient is intricate, involved and, remarkably, confined to certain members of the prokaryotic world, seemingly never have to have made the eukaryotic transition. In humans, the vitamin is required in trace amounts (approximately 1 microg/day) to assist the actions of only two enzymes, methionine synthase and (R)-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase; yet commercially more than 10 t of B12 are produced each year from a number of bacterial species. The rich scientific history of vitamin B12 research, its biological functions and the pathways employed by bacteria for its de novo synthesis are described. Current strategies for the improvement of vitamin B12 production using modern biotechnological techniques are outlined.

                Author and article information

                Appl Microbiol Biotechnol
                Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol
                Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                22 November 2017
                22 November 2017
                : 102
                : 2
                : 515-538
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1955 7966, GRID grid.13276.31, Department of Biotechnology, Microbiology and Food Evaluation, Division of Food Biotechnology and Microbiology, Faculty of Food Sciences, , Warsaw University of Life Sciences SGGW (WULS-SGGW), ; Nowoursynowska 159c Street, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1955 7966, GRID grid.13276.31, Department of Food Technology, Division of Fruit and Vegetable Technology, Faculty of Food Sciences, , Warsaw University of Life Sciences (WULS-SGGW), ; Nowoursynowska 159c Street, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

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                © Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018


                propionibacterium, propionic acid, vitamin b12, trehalose, bacteriocins


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