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      Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceptions Regarding Basic Life Support Among Teachers in Training

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      Cureus
      Cureus
      basic life support, bls, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, cpr, teachers, learners, school, knowledge, attitude, perception

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          Abstract

          Background

          Cardiac arrests may occur anytime, anywhere and to anyone including learners at schools. Teachers have a moral obligation to care for learners while on the school premises. Outcomes after cardiac arrest are better when the first-responder possesses adequate knowledge and skill in basic life support (BLS) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of student-teachers pertaining to BLS.

          Methods

          This was a self-administered, questionnaire based, prospective and cross-sectional study of senior undergraduate student-teachers enrolled at a South African university. The study was conducted between 04 November 2017 and 18 February 2018.

          Results

          A total of 316 student-teachers, with a mean age of 21.8 ± 2.6 years completed the survey. Trauma-related emergencies, allergic reactions and breathing difficulties were witnessed during practice teaching sessions at various schools by 52.5% (n = 166), 36.4% (n = 115) and 32.9% (n = 104) of participants, respectively. The mean knowledge score pertaining to BLS was 4.0 ± 1.7 out of 12 points. Previous CPR training was associated with a good knowledge score (p = 0.005) and confidence in responding to an emergency (p = 0.005). Most of the participants (N = 288, 91.1%) had no formal training in CPR with more than three-quarters (76.4%) of them not knowing where to acquire training. Barriers to initiating CPR included fear of litigation (n = 264, 83.5%), injury to the victim (n = 238, 75.3%), presence of blood, vomitus or secretions (n = 206, 65.2%) and fear of contracting a disease (n = 186, 58.8%). Most (n = 255, 80.7%) respondents reported that they would perform CPR on a learner at school.

          Conclusion

          Student-teachers surveyed in this study displayed poor knowledge and perceptions but positive attitudes with regards to the practice of CPR and BLS. Consideration should be given to including formal CPR training as part of the curriculum for teachers in training.

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          Most cited references24

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          Health-related quality of life is better for cardiac arrest survivors who received citizen cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

          This study evaluated the prehospital factors associated with better health-related quality of life for survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. This prospective, 20-community, cohort study involved consecutive, adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients who survived to 1 year. Patients were contacted by telephone and evaluated for the Health Utilities Index Mark III (HUI3), which describes health as a utility score on a scale from 0 (dead) to 1.0 (perfect health). The 8091 cardiac arrest patients had overall survival rates of 5.2% to hospital discharge and 4.0% to 1 year. We successfully contacted and evaluated 268 of 316 (84.8%) of known 1-year survivors. The median HUI3 score was 0.80 (interquartile range, 0.50 to 0.97), which compares well with age-adjusted values for the general population (0.83). Logistic regression identified 2 factors independently associated with very good quality of life (HUI3 >0.90) and their odds ratios (95% CIs), as follows: age 80 years or older, 0.3 (0.1 to 0.84), and citizen-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), 2.0 (1.2 to 3.4) (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic, 0.74). This study is the largest ever conducted for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors, clearly shows that these patients have good quality of life, and is the first to demonstrate that citizen-initiated CPR is strongly and independently associated with better quality of life. These results emphasize the importance of optimizing community citizen CPR readiness. Given the low rate of citizen-initiated CPR in many communities, we believe that local and national initiatives should vigorously promote the practice of bystander CPR.
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            Food-allergic reactions in schools and preschools.

            Food allergies may affect up to 6% of school-aged children. To conduct a telephone survey to characterize food-allergic reactions in children (defined as those aged 3-19 years in this study) with known food allergies in schools and preschools and to determine mechanisms that are in place to prevent and treat those reactions. The parents of food-allergic children were contacted by telephone and asked about their child's history of food-allergic reactions in school. The schools the children attended were contacted, and the person responsible for the treatment of allergic reactions completed a telephone survey. Of 132 children in the study, 58% reported food-allergic reactions in the past 2 years. Eighteen percent experienced 1 or more reactions in school. The offending food was identified in 34 of 41 reactions, milk being the causative food in 11 (32%); peanut in 10 (29%); egg in 6 (18%); tree nuts in 2 (6%); and soy, wheat, celery, mango, or garlic in 1 (3%) each. In 24 reactions (59%), symptoms were limited to the skin; wheezing occurred in 13 (32%), vomiting and/or diarrhea in 4 (10%), and hypotension in 1 (2%). Also, 15 (36%) of the 41 reactions involved 2 or more organ systems, and 6 (15%) were treated with epinephrine. Fourteen percent of the children did not have a physician's orders for treatment, and 16% did not have any medications available. Of the 80 participating schools, 31 (39%) reported at least 1 food-allergic reaction within the past 2 years and 54 (67%) made at least 1 accommodation for children with a food allergy, such as peanut-free tables, a peanut ban from the classroom, or alternative meals. It is common for food-allergic children to experience allergic reactions in schools and preschools, with 18% of children having had at least 1 school reaction within the past 2 years. Thirty-six percent of the reactions involved 2 or more organ systems, and 32% involved wheezing. Every effort should be made to prevent, recognize, and appropriately treat food-allergic reactions in schools.
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              Cardiac arrest in children

              Major advances in the field of pediatric cardiac arrest (CA) were made during the last decade, starting with the publication of pediatric Utstein guidelines, the 2005 recommendations by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, and culminating in multicenter collaborations. The epidemiology and pathophysiology of in-hospital and out-of-hospital CA are now well described. Four phases of CA are described and the term “post-cardiac arrest syndrome” has been proposed, along with treatment goals for each of its four phases: immediate post-arrest, early post-arrest, intermediate and recovery phase. Hypothermia is recommended to be considered as a therapy for post-CA syndrome in comatose patients after CA, and large multicenter prospective studies are underway. We reviewed landmark articles related to pediatric CA published during the last decade. We present the current knowledge of epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment of CA relevant to pre-hospital and acute care health practitioners.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cureus
                Cureus
                2168-8184
                Cureus
                Cureus (Palo Alto (CA) )
                2168-8184
                6 December 2019
                December 2019
                : 11
                : 12
                : e6302
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Emergency Medicine, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, ZAF
                Author notes
                Article
                10.7759/cureus.6302
                6944153
                31938594
                3b60a354-bad0-4ce2-8883-82e7c65b49ed
                Copyright © 2019, Ojifinni et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 2 December 2019
                : 5 December 2019
                Categories
                Emergency Medicine

                basic life support,bls,cardiopulmonary resuscitation,cpr,teachers,learners,school,knowledge,attitude,perception

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