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      Role of Asymmetric Dimethylarginine in Inflammatory Reactions by Angiotensin II

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          Abstract

          Previous investigations have demonstrated that angiotensin (Ang) II induces inflammatory reactions and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous NOS inhibitor, might be a novel inflammatory factor. Endothelial cell activation was induced by incubation with Ang II or ADMA. Incubation with Ang II (10<sup>–6</sup> M) for 24 h elevated the levels of ADMA and decreased the levels of nitrite/nitrate concomitantly with a significant increase in the expression of protein arginine methyltransferase and a decrease in the activity of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH). Exposure to Ang II (10<sup>–6</sup> M for 24 h) also enhanced intracellular ROS elaboration and the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-8, upregulated chemokine receptor CXCR<sub>2</sub> mRNA expression, increased adhesion of endothelial cells to monocytes and induced a significant increase in the activity of nuclear factor (NF)-ĸB, which was attenuated by pretreatment with the Ang II receptor blocker losartan (1, 3 and 10 µ M). Exogenous ADMA (30 µ M) also increased ROS generation and the levels of TNF-α and IL-8, decreased the levels of nitrite/nitrate, upregulated CXCR<sub>2</sub> gene expression, increased endothelial cell binding with monocytes and activated the NF-ĸB pathway, which was inhibited by pretreatment with losartan or L-arginine. These data suggest that ADMA is a potential proinflammatory factor and may be involved in the inflammatory reaction induced by Ang II.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Vascular inflammation and the renin-angiotensin system.

          It is now well established that vascular inflammation is an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. In otherwise healthy patients, chronic elevations of circulating interleukin-6 or its biomarkers are predictors for increased risk in the development and progression of ischemic heart disease. Although multifactorial in etiology, vascular inflammation produces atherosclerosis by the continuous recruitment of circulating monocytes into the vessel wall and by contributing to an oxidant-rich inflammatory milieu that induces phenotypic changes in resident (noninflammatory) cells. In addition, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has important modulatory activities in the atherogenic process. Recent work has shown that angiotensin II (Ang II) has significant proinflammatory actions in the vascular wall, inducing the production of reactive oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines, and adhesion molecules. These latter effects on gene expression are mediated, at least in part, through the cytoplasmic nuclear factor-kappaB transcription factor. Through these actions, Ang II augments vascular inflammation, induces endothelial dysfunction, and, in so doing, enhances the atherogenic process. Our recent studies have defined a molecular mechanism for a biological positive-feedback loop that explains how vascular inflammation can be self-sustaining through upregulation of the vessel wall Ang II tone. Ang II produced locally by the inflamed vessel induces the synthesis and secretion of interleukin-6, a cytokine that induces synthesis of angiotensinogen in the liver through a janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 pathway. Enhanced angiotensinogen production, in turn, supplies more substrate to the activated vascular RAS, where locally produced Ang II synergizes with oxidized lipid to perpetuate atherosclerotic vascular inflammation. These observations suggest that one mechanism by which RAS antagonists prevent atherosclerosis is by reducing vascular inflammation. Moreover, antagonizing the vascular nuclear factor-kappaB and/or hepatic JAK/STAT pathways may modulate the atherosclerotic process.
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            Reduced urinary excretion of nitric oxide metabolites and increased plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine in men with essential hypertension.

            Our aim was to investigate systemic nitric oxide (NO) production and its potential determinants such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and circulating methylated analogs of L-arginine in uncomplicated essential hypertension (EH). Nineteen newly diagnosed, untreated male subjects with mild pure uncomplicated EH and 11 normotensive controls were studied at rest after an overnight fast. The groups had comparable age, body mass index, creatinine clearance, cholesterol, fasting glucose, and insulin. In hypertensives, the urinary excretion rate of nitrite plus nitrate (Unox), an index of endogenous NO production, was depressed (56+/-17 vs. 77+/-23 micromol/mmol creatinine; p < 0.05), whereas plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthesis, were increased (2.4+/-1.1 vs. 1.1+/-0.7 microM; p < 0.005). Circulating concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine were similar in both groups (1.4+/-1.3 vs. 1.5+/-1.1 microM; p = NS). The L-arginine-to-ADMA ratio was reduced in hypertension (3.3+/-0.5 vs. 4.5+/-0.8; p < 0.001 for In-transformed data). There was no correlation between Unox and either the magnitude of insulin resistance or dyslipidemia in EH. Thus in male subjects with EH, endogenous systemic NO formation appears depressed, which is unrelated to accompanying insulin resistance or dyslipidemia. Circulating ADMA levels are increased in uncomplicated EH, which may be of potential relevance.
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              The emerging role of asymmetric dimethylarginine as a novel cardiovascular risk factor.

              There is abundant evidence that the endothelium plays a crucial role in the maintenance of vascular tone and structure. One of the major endothelium-derived vasoactive mediators is nitric oxide (NO). Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthase. ADMA inhibits vascular NO production at concentrations found in pathophysiological conditions (i.e., 3-15 micromol/l); ADMA also causes local vasoconstriction when it is infused intraarterially. The biochemical and physiological pathways related to ADMA are now well understood: dimethylarginines are the result of the degradation of methylated proteins; the methyl group is derived from S-adenosylmethionine. Both ADMA and its regioisomer, SDMA, are eliminated from the body by renal excretion, whereas only ADMA, but not SDMA, is metabolized via hydrolytic degradation to citrulline and dimethylamine by the enzyme dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH). DDAH activity and/or expression may therefore contribute to the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction in various diseases. ADMA is increased in the plasma of humans with hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, hypertension, chronic renal failure, and chronic heart failure. Increased ADMA levels are associated with reduced NO synthesis as assessed by impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation. In several prospective and cross-sectional studies, ADMA evolved as a marker of cardiovascular risk. With our increasing knowledge of the role of ADMA in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, ADMA is becoming a goal for pharmacotherapeutic intervention. Among other treatments, the administration of L-arginine has been shown to improve endothelium-dependent vascular function in subjects with high ADMA levels.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2007
                August 2007
                30 May 2007
                : 44
                : 5
                : 391-402
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Cardiovascular Medicine, Xiang-Ya Hospital, and bDepartment of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Central South University, Changsha, and cDepartment of Cardiovascular Medicine, He-Ping Hospital, affiliated to the Shangxi Changzhi Medical College, Taiyuan, China
                Article
                103284 J Vasc Res 2007;44:391–402
                10.1159/000103284
                17551258
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 9, Tables: 2, References: 42, Pages: 12
                Categories
                Research Paper

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