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      Metabolism in the toxicokinetics and fate of brominated flame retardants--a review.

      Environment International

      metabolism, Vertebrates, physiology, Tissue Distribution, Models, Chemical, chemistry, Hydrocarbons, Brominated, toxicity, Flame Retardants, Enzyme Induction, Animals, pharmacokinetics

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          Abstract

          Several classes of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), namely polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCCD), bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), and tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate (Tris), have been identified as environmental contaminants. PBDEs, TBBPA, and HBCCD are of particular concern due to increasing environmental concentrations and their ubiquitous presence in the tissues of humans and wildlife from Europe, Japan, and North America. Regardless, the toxicokinetics, in particular metabolism, of BFRs has received little attention. The present review summarizes the current state of knowledge of BFR metabolism, which is an important factor in determining the bioaccumulation, fate, toxicokinetics, and potential toxicity of BFRs in exposed organisms. Of the minimal metabolism research done, BFRs have been shown to be susceptible to several metabolic processes including oxidative debromination, reductive debromination, oxidative CYP enzyme-mediated biotransformation, and/or Phase II conjugation (glucuronidation and sulfation).However, substantially more research on metabolism is necessary to fully assess BFR fate, uptake and elimination kinetics, metabolic pathways, inter-species differences, the influence of congener structure, and the potential health risks to exposed organisms.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00109-0
          12850098

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