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      Non-coding RNA networks in cancer

      , ,
      Nature Reviews Cancer
      Springer Nature

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          Abstract

          Thousands of unique non-coding RNA (ncRNA) sequences exist within cells. Work from the past decade has altered our perception of ncRNAs from 'junk' transcriptional products to functional regulatory molecules that mediate cellular processes including chromatin remodelling, transcription, post-transcriptional modifications and signal transduction. The networks in which ncRNAs engage can influence numerous molecular targets to drive specific cell biological responses and fates. Consequently, ncRNAs act as key regulators of physiological programmes in developmental and disease contexts. Particularly relevant in cancer, ncRNAs have been identified as oncogenic drivers and tumour suppressors in every major cancer type. Thus, a deeper understanding of the complex networks of interactions that ncRNAs coordinate would provide a unique opportunity to design better therapeutic interventions.

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          Most cited references72

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          Central dogma of molecular biology.

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            Roles for microRNAs in conferring robustness to biological processes.

            Biological systems use a variety of mechanisms to maintain their functions in the face of environmental and genetic perturbations. Increasing evidence suggests that, among their roles as posttranscriptional repressors of gene expression, microRNAs (miRNAs) help to confer robustness to biological processes by reinforcing transcriptional programs and attenuating aberrant transcripts, and they may in some network contexts help suppress random fluctuations in transcript copy number. These activities have important consequences for normal development and physiology, disease, and evolution. Here, we will discuss examples and principles of miRNAs that contribute to robustness in animal systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Coding-independent regulation of the tumor suppressor PTEN by competing endogenous mRNAs.

              Here, we demonstrate that protein-coding RNA transcripts can crosstalk by competing for common microRNAs, with microRNA response elements as the foundation of this interaction. We have termed such RNA transcripts as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs). We tested this hypothesis in the context of PTEN, a key tumor suppressor whose abundance determines critical outcomes in tumorigenesis. By a combined computational and experimental approach, we identified and validated endogenous protein-coding transcripts that regulate PTEN, antagonize PI3K/AKT signaling, and possess growth- and tumor-suppressive properties. Notably, we also show that these genes display concordant expression patterns with PTEN and copy number loss in cancers. Our study presents a road map for the prediction and validation of ceRNA activity and networks and thus imparts a trans-regulatory function to protein-coding mRNAs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Cancer
                Nat Rev Cancer
                Springer Nature
                1474-175X
                1474-1768
                November 24 2017
                November 24 2017
                :
                :
                Article
                10.1038/nrc.2017.99
                6337726
                29170536
                3b744be0-001b-48e5-9d9d-96b00b35eb31
                © 2017
                History

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