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      Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced prostaglandin E2 release is mediated by the activation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) transcription via NFkappaB in human gingival fibroblasts.

      Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

      cytology, Animals, Antioxidants, pharmacology, Binding Sites, Cattle, Cells, Cultured, Cyclooxygenase 2, Dinoprostone, metabolism, Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay, Enzyme Induction, drug effects, Fibroblasts, enzymology, Gingiva, Humans, Isoenzymes, genetics, Membrane Proteins, NF-kappa B, Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases, RNA, Messenger, Time Factors, Transcription, Genetic, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha

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          Nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) is a transcription factor and plays a key role in the expression of several genes involved in the inflammatory process. Cyclooxygenase (COX) is the key regulatory enzyme of the prostaglandin/eicosanoid synthetic pathway. COX-2 is a highly inducible enzyme by proinflammatory cytokines, of which gene expression is regulated by NFkappaB. TNF-alpha is a pro-inflammatory cytokine. In this paper, we investigated the involvement of NFkappaB on TNF-alpha-mediated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release and COX-2 gene expression in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). TNF-alpha-induced PGE2 release and COX-2 mRNA accumulation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in HGF. The results of transient transfection assays using a chimeric construct of the human COX-2 promoter (nts -1432 approximately +59) ligated to a luciferase reporter gene indicated that TNF-a stimulated the transcriptional activity approximately 1.4-fold. Gel mobility shift assays with a radiolabelled COX-2-NFkappaB oligonucleotide (nts -223 to -214) revealed an increase in the binding of nuclear proteins from TNF-alpha-stimulated HGF. The COX-2-NFKB DNA-protein complex disappeared after treatment with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC; an antioxidant) or herbimycin A (a tyrosine kinase inhibitor). PDTC and herbimycin A attenuated TNF-alpha-stimulated PGE2 release. These results suggest that NFkappaB transcription factor is a key regulator of COX-2 expression in TNF-alpha-induced PGE2 production, which is mediated through a tyrosine kinase pathway in HGF.

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