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      Individual variations of the superior petrosal vein complex and their microsurgical relevance in 50 cases of trigeminal microvascular decompression

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          Abstract

          Background

          We investigated the understudied anatomical variations of the superior petrosal vein (SPV) complex (SPVC), which may play some role in dictating the individual complication risk following SPVC injury.

          Methods

          Microvascular decompressions of the trigeminal nerve between September 2012 and July 2016. All operations utilized an SPVC preserving technique. Preoperative balanced fast field echo (bFFE) magnetic resonance imaging, or equivalent sequences, and operative videos were studied for individual SPVC anatomical features.

          Results

          Applied imaging and operative SPVC anatomy were described for fifty patients (mean age, 67.18 years; female sex and right-sided operations, 58% each). An SPVC component was sacrificed intentionally in 6 and unintentionally in only 7 cases. Twenty-nine different individual variations were observed; 80% of SPVCs had either 2 SPVs with 3 or 1 SPV with 2, 3, or 4 direct tributaries. Most SPVCs had 1 SPV (64%) and 2 SPVs (32%). The SPV drainage point into the superior petrosal sinus was predominantly between the internal auditory meatus and Meckel cave (85.7% of cases). The vein of the cerebellopontine fissure was the most frequent direct tributary (86%), followed by the pontotrigeminal vein in 80% of SPVCs. Petrosal-galenic anastomosis was detected in at least 38% of cases. At least 1 SPV in 54% of the cases and at least 1 direct tributary in 90% disturbed the operative field. The tributaries were more commonly sacrificed.

          Conclusions

          The extensive anatomical variation of SPVC is depicted. Most SPVCs fall into 4 common general configurations and can usually be preserved. BFFE or equivalent sequences remarkably facilitated the intraoperative understanding of the individual SPVC in most cases.

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          Most cited references34

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          Microvascular decompression of cranial nerves: lessons learned after 4400 operations.

          Microvascular decompression has become an accepted surgical technique for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, and other cranial nerve rhizopathies. The senior author (P.J.J.) began performing this procedure in 1969 and has performed more than 4400 operations. The purpose of this article is to review some of the nuances of the technical aspects of this procedure. A review of 4415 operations shows that numerous modifications to the technique of microvascular decompression have occurred during the last 29 years. Of the 2420 operations performed for trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm, and glossopharyngeal neuralgia before 1990, cerebellar injury occurred in 21 cases (0.87%), hearing loss in 48 (1.98%), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage in 59 cases (2.44%). Of the 1995 operations performed since 1990, cerebellar injuries declined to nine cases (0.45%), hearing loss to 16 (0.8%), and CSF leakage to 37 (1.85% p < 0.01, test for equality of distributions). The authors describe slight variations made to maximize surgical exposure and minimize potential complications in each of the six principal steps of this operation. These modifications have led to decreasing complication rates in recent years. Using the techniques described in this report, microvascular decompression is an extremely safe and effective treatment for many cranial nerve rhizopathies.
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            Steady-state MR imaging sequences: physics, classification, and clinical applications.

            Steady-state sequences are a class of rapid magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques based on fast gradient-echo acquisitions in which both longitudinal magnetization (LM) and transverse magnetization (TM) are kept constant. Both LM and TM reach a nonzero steady state through the use of a repetition time that is shorter than the T2 relaxation time of tissue. When TM is maintained as multiple radiofrequency excitation pulses are applied, two types of signal are formed once steady state is reached: preexcitation signal (S-) from echo reformation; and postexcitation signal (S+), which consists of free induction decay. Depending on the signal sampled and used to form an image, steady-state sequences can be classified as (a) postexcitation refocused (only S+ is sampled), (b) preexcitation refocused (only S- is sampled), and (c) fully refocused (both S+ and S- are sampled) sequences. All tissues with a reasonably long T2 relaxation time will show additional signals due to various refocused echo paths. Steady-state sequences have revolutionized cardiac imaging and have become the standard for anatomic functional cardiac imaging and for the assessment of myocardial viability because of their good signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio and increased speed of acquisition. They are also useful in abdominal and fetal imaging and hold promise for interventional MR imaging. Because steady-state sequences are now commonly used in MR imaging, radiologists will benefit from understanding the underlying physics, classification, and clinical applications of these sequences.
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              Microsurgical anatomy of the veins of the posterior fossa.

              The microsurgical anatomy of the veins of the posterior fossa was defined in 25 cadavers. These veins are divided into four groups: superficial, deep, brain-stem, and bridging veins. The superficial veins are divided on the basis of which of the three cortical surfaces they drain: the tentorial surface, which faces the tentorium and is exposed in a supracerebellar approach, is drained by the superior hemispheric and vermian veins; the suboccipital surface, which is below and between the lateral and sigmoid sinuses and is exposed in a wide suboccipital craniectomy, is drained by the inferior hemispheric and inferior vermian veins; and the petrosal surface, which faces forward toward the posterior surface of the petrous bone and is retracted to expose the cerebellopontine angle, is drained by the anterior hemispheric veins. The deep veins course in the three fissures between the cerebellum and the brain stem, and on the three cerebellar peduncles. The major deep veins in the fissures between the cerebellum and brain stem are the veins of the cerebellomesencephalic, cerebellomedullary, and cerebellopontine fissures, and those on the cerebellar peduncles are the veins of the superior, middle, and inferior cerebellar peduncles. The veins of the brain stem are named on the basis of whether they drain the midbrain, pons, or medulla. The veins of the posterior fossa terminate as bridging veins, which collect into three groups: a galenic group which drains into the vein of Galen; a petrosal group which drains into the petrosal sinuses; and a tentorial group which drains into the tentorial sinuses near the torcula.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                msbasam7@yahoo.com
                Journal
                Acta Neurochir (Wien)
                Acta Neurochir (Wien)
                Acta Neurochirurgica
                Springer Vienna (Vienna )
                0001-6268
                0942-0940
                26 November 2019
                26 November 2019
                2020
                : 162
                : 1
                : 197-209
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.452271.7, ISNI 0000 0000 8916 1994, Department of Neurosurgery, , Asklepios Klinik Altona, ; Paul-Ehrlich Strasse 1, 22763 Hamburg, Germany
                [2 ]GRID grid.412126.2, ISNI 0000 0004 0607 9688, Division of Neurosurgery, , King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, ; Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6191-2674
                Article
                4109
                10.1007/s00701-019-04109-7
                6942005
                31768757
                3b8fc569-99ff-4f0a-9c7c-262f1d30b6bc
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                History
                : 19 August 2019
                : 14 October 2019
                Categories
                Original Article - Neurosurgical Anatomy
                Custom metadata
                © Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2020

                Surgery
                superior petrosal vein,microvascular decompression,cerebellopontine angle,trigeminal neuralgia,surgical anatomy,anatomy

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