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      Sympathetic Activity and Blood Pressure Pattern in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Hypertensives

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          Abstract

          To study the potential role of sympathetic activity in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and to analyze its relationship with 24-hour blood pressure pattern, plasma catecholamines and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were evaluated in 30 ADPKD hypertensive patients (of which 17 without and 13 with renal failure) and in 50 essential hypertensives. The groups were matched for sex, body mass index, known duration of hypertension, and clinic blood pressure. Plasma catecholamines, determined in resting position, were higher in ADPKD patients without renal failure than in essential hypertensives. Nighttime diastolic blood pressure was higher and the percentage day-night difference in mean blood pressure was lower in hypertensives with ADPKD compared to patients with essential hypertension. Blood pressure was significantly correlated with plasma noradrenaline in ADPKD patients, independently of renal function. No significant differences were observed between ADPKD patients with and without renal failure, with respect to plasma catecholamines, 24-hour daytime and nighttime ambulatory blood pressures and the percentage day-night difference in mean blood pressure.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Clinical relevance of nighttime blood pressure and of daytime blood pressure variability.

          The purpose of this study was to assess whether hypertensive target organ damage is related to average nighttime blood pressure (BP) and to BP variability. Sixty-seven normotensive subjects and 171 borderline, 309 mild, 140 moderate, and 41 severe hypertensive patients were studied with noninvasive ambulatory BP monitoring. Each subject was assigned a target organ damage score of 0 to 5 on the basis of funduscopic changes and degree of left ventricular hypertrophy calculated from electrocardiogram and chest roentgenogram. When the 728 subjects were subdivided into five classes of increasing daytime BP, in each class a significantly higher degree of target organ damage was present in the subjects with higher nighttime diastolic BP. A similar, although nonsignificant, trend was observed in the subjects with higher nighttime systolic BP. In particular, higher nighttime BP levels were accompanied by a more severe degree of left ventricular hypertrophy. As for variability, subjects with higher daytime systolic BP SD, but not with higher daytime diastolic SD, displayed a more severe degree of target organ damage; this was accounted for by a higher degree of retinal abnormalities. The association between target organ damage and systolic BP SD was present both in men and women, while that with nighttime BP was present only in men. No relationship was found between degree of cardiovascular complications and peaks of pressure. These results suggest that a reduced day-night BP difference and an increased daytime BP variability, evaluated as the SD, are associated with a higher degree of hypertensive cardiovascular complications. Whether this BP profile is the cause or the consequence of target organ damage remains to be established.
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            Gender-specific cardiovascular adaptation due to circadian blood pressure variations in essential hypertension.

            To determine the effects of circadian variation in arterial pressure on early hypertensive target organ disease, we examined systemic hemodynamics (cardiac output by indocyanine green dye dilution), renal hemodynamics (renal plasma flow by iodine-131 para-aminohippuric acid clearance), left ventricular structure and function (2D-guided M-mode echocardiogram), and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in 20 women and 46 men with untreated essential hypertension. Both gender groups were subdivided into "dippers" and "nondippers" according to the physiologic nocturnal decrease in mean arterial pressure by 10% of daytime values. Systemic and renal hemodynamics, neurohumoral findings (norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, plasma renin activity), causal blood pressure values, duration of hypertension, and body weight did not differ between the two groups. In contrast, left ventricular mass and mass index was higher in female nondippers than dippers (255 +/- 68 v 184 +/- 81 g, and 137 +/- 30 v 102 +/- 39 g/m2, P < .05, respectively), while in men no significant differences were found (234 +/- 48 v 240 +/- 54 g, and 119 +/- 27 v 121 +/- 13 g/m2, P = NS, respectively). Relative wall thickness (0.45 +/- 0.06 v 0.39 +/- 0.06, P < .05) and posterior wall thickness (1.1 +/- 0.1 v 0.89 +/- 0.2 mm, P < .05) were also found to be greater in female nondippers than in dippers, whereas no significant differences were obtained in men. Thus, the degree of left ventricular hypertrophy correlated with the circadian blood pressure variations in women only, which indicates that left ventricular structure may be more load-dependent in women than in men with essential hypertension.
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              Hypertension in polycystic kidney disease without renal failure

               D. NASH,  DA Nash (1977)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                1998
                October 1998
                10 September 1998
                : 18
                : 5
                : 391-398
                Affiliations
                Istituto di Clinica Medica e Malattie Cardiovascolari, Cattedra di Medicina Interna e Centro Ipertensione, Università di Palermo, Italia
                Article
                13382 Am J Nephrol 1998;18:391–398
                10.1159/000013382
                9730562
                © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, References: 55, Pages: 8
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/13382
                Categories
                Clinical Study

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