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      Treatment of upper eyelid retraction related to thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy using subconjunctival triamcinolone injections

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          Graves' ophthalmopathy.

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            Clinical activity score as a guide in the management of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy.

            Approximately 35% of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy do not respond to immunosuppressive treatment. A possible explanation for this finding is that only patients with active ophthalmopathy respond to immunosuppressive treatment, whereas patients with fibrotic end stage disease do not. To distinguish between these two groups and to predict the outcome of immunosuppressive treatment, we developed a clinical activity score (CAS) based on four of the five classical signs of inflammation and tested its efficacy in a double-blind, prospective study. The CAS was determined by an opthalmologist before, on the day of, and after the start of either oral prednisone or retrobulbar irradiation in 43 patients with moderate to severe Graves' ophthalmopathy. The therapeutic outcome was determined by a second ophthalmologist unaware of the CAS stores given. Success of treatment was defined as an improvement in NOSPECS class or grade. Responders (22) and non-responders (21) did not differ in age, sex, duration or severity of their Graves' ophthalmopathy. The pretreatment CAS, however, was significantly higher in responders than in non-responders. Twelve of 22 responders and three of 21 non-responders had a CAS > or = 4 (55% vs 14%; P or = 4 had a similar duration of Graves' ophthalmopathy as patients with a CAS < 4. The clinical activity score has a high predictive value for the outcome of immunosuppressive treatment in Graves' ophthalmopathy. Disease activity, and not disease duration, is the prime determinant of therapeutic outcome.
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              Clinical features of Graves' ophthalmopathy in an incidence cohort.

              To determine the clinical characteristics of an incidence cohort of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy. We reviewed the community medical records of 120 patients residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, in whom Graves' ophthalmopathy was diagnosed between 1976 and 1990. Among 120 patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy, 108 (90%) patients had Graves' hyperthyroidism, one (1%) had primary hypothyroidism, four (3%) had Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and seven (6%) were euthyroid. At some point in their clinical course, eyelid retraction was present in 108 patients, whereas the approximate frequency of exophthalmos was 62% (73 patients); restrictive extraocular myopathy, 43% (51 patients); and optic nerve dysfunction, 6% (seven patients). Only six (5%) patients had eyelid retraction, exophthalmos, optic nerve dysfunction, extraocular muscle involvement, and hyperthyroidism. At the time of diagnosis of ophthalmopathy, upper eyelid retraction and eyelid lag were documented in 85 and 52 patients, respectively, and the most frequent ocular symptom was pain (36 patients, 30%). Diplopia was noted at the initial examination by 20 patients, lacrimation was present in 25 patients, 19 patients had photophobia, and nine patients had blurred vision. Decreased vision from optic neuropathy was present in less than 2% of eyes at the time of diagnosis. Thyroid dermopathy and acropachy accompanied Graves' ophthalmopathy in five patients (4%) and one (1%) patient, respectively. Myasthenia gravis occurred in only one patient. Eyelid retraction is the most common clinical sign of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The complete constellation of typical features (hyperthyroidism, eyelid retraction, exophthalmos, restrictive extraocular myopathy, and optic nerve dysfunction) occurs relatively infrequently.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
                Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0721-832X
                1435-702X
                January 2013
                September 12 2012
                January 2013
                : 251
                : 1
                : 261-270
                Article
                10.1007/s00417-012-2153-y
                3b9066ca-753d-425d-aceb-3c9db9efd47e
                © 2013

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