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      First Automated Stroke Imaging Evaluation via Electronic Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score in a Mobile Stroke Unit

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          Abstract

          Background: Recently, a mobile stroke unit (MSU) was shown to facilitate acute stroke treatment directly at the emergency site. The neuroradiological expertise of the MSU is improved by its ability to detect early ischemic damage via automatic electronic (e) evaluation of CT scans using a novel software program that calculates the electronic Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (e-ASPECTS). Methods: The feasibility of integrating e-ASPECTS into an ambulance was examined, and the clinical integration and utility of the software in 15 consecutive cases evaluated. Results: Implementation of e-ASPECTS onto the MSU and into the prehospital stroke management was feasible. The values of e-ASPECTS matched with the results of conventional neuroradiologic analysis by the MSU team. The potential benefits of e-ASPECTS were illustrated by three cases. In case 1, excluding early infarct signs supported the decision to directly perform prehospital thrombolysis. In case 2, in which stroke was caused by large-vessel occlusion, the high e-ASPECTS value supported the decision to initiate intra-arterial treatment and triage the patient to a comprehensive stroke center. In case 3, the e-ASPECTS value was 10, indicating the absence of early infarct signs despite pre-existing cerebral microangiopathy and macroangiopathy, a finding indicating the program's robustness against artefacts. Conclusions: This study on the integration of e-ASPECTS into the prehospital stroke management via a MSU showed for the first time that such integration is feasible, and aids both decision regarding the treatment option and the triage regarding the most appropriate target hospital.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Diagnosis and treatment of patients with stroke in a mobile stroke unit versus in hospital: a randomised controlled trial.

          Only 2-5% of patients who have a stroke receive thrombolytic treatment, mainly because of delay in reaching the hospital. We aimed to assess the efficacy of a new approach of diagnosis and treatment starting at the emergency site, rather than after hospital arrival, in reducing delay in stroke therapy. We did a randomised single-centre controlled trial to compare the time from alarm (emergency call) to therapy decision between mobile stroke unit (MSU) and hospital intervention. For inclusion in our study patients needed to be aged 18-80 years and have one or more stroke symptoms that started within the previous 2·5 h. In accordance with our week-wise randomisation plan, patients received either prehospital stroke treatment in a specialised ambulance (equipped with a CT scanner, point-of-care laboratory, and telemedicine connection) or optimised conventional hospital-based stroke treatment (control group) with a 7 day follow-up. Allocation was not masked from patients and investigators. Our primary endpoint was time from alarm to therapy decision, which was analysed with the Mann-Whitney U test. Our secondary endpoints included times from alarm to end of CT and to end of laboratory analysis, number of patients receiving intravenous thrombolysis, time from alarm to intravenous thrombolysis, and neurological outcome. We also assessed safety endpoints. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00153036. We stopped the trial after our planned interim analysis at 100 of 200 planned patients (53 in the prehospital stroke treatment group, 47 in the control group), because we had met our prespecified criteria for study termination. Prehospital stroke treatment reduced the median time from alarm to therapy decision substantially: 35 min (IQR 31-39) versus 76 min (63-94), p<0·0001; median difference 41 min (95% CI 36-48 min). We also detected similar gains regarding times from alarm to end of CT, and alarm to end of laboratory analysis, and to intravenous thrombolysis for eligible ischaemic stroke patients, although there was no substantial difference in number of patients who received intravenous thrombolysis or in neurological outcome. Safety endpoints seemed similar across the groups. For patients with suspected stroke, treatment by the MSU substantially reduced median time from alarm to therapy decision. The MSU strategy offers a potential solution to the medical problem of the arrival of most stroke patients at the hospital too late for treatment. Ministry of Health of the Saarland, Germany, the Werner-Jackstädt Foundation, the Else-Kröner-Fresenius Foundation, and the Rettungsstiftung Saar. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke: results of the Canadian Alteplase for Stroke Effectiveness Study.

             ,  Kyle Hill,  A Buchan (2005)
            Thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke has remained controversial. The Canadian Alteplase for Stroke Effectiveness Study, a national prospective cohort study, was conducted to assess the effectiveness of alteplase therapy for ischemic stroke in actual practice. The study was mandated by the federal government as a condition of licensure of alteplase for the treatment of stroke in Canada. A registry was established to collect data over 2.5 years for stroke patients receiving such treatment from Feb. 17, 1999, through June 30, 2001. All centres capable of administering thrombolysis therapy according to Canadian guidelines were eligible to submit patient data to the registry. Data collection was prospective, and follow-up was completed at 90 days after stroke. Copies of head CT scans obtained at baseline and at 24-48 hours after the start of treatment were submitted to a central panel for review. A total of 1135 patients were enrolled at 60 centres in all major hospitals across Canada. The registry collected data for an estimated 84% of all treated ischemic stroke patients in the country. An excellent clinical outcome was observed in 37% of the patients. Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in only 4.6% of the patients (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.4%-6.0%); however, 75% of these patients died in hospital. An additional 1.3% (95% CI 0.7%-2.2%) of patients had hemiorolingual angioedema. The outcomes of stroke patients undergoing thrombolysis in Canada are commensurate with the results of clinical trials. The rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was low. Stroke thrombolysis is a safe and effective therapy in actual practice.
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              Endovascular stent thrombectomy: the new standard of care for large vessel ischaemic stroke.

              Results of initial randomised trials of endovascular treatment for ischaemic stroke, published in 2013, were neutral but limited by the selection criteria used, early-generation devices with modest efficacy, non-consecutive enrollment, and treatment delays.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CED
                Cerebrovasc Dis
                10.1159/issn.1015-9770
                Cerebrovascular Diseases
                Cerebrovasc Dis
                S. Karger AG (Basel, Switzerland karger@ 123456karger.com http://www.karger.com )
                1015-9770
                1421-9786
                November 2016
                16 June 2016
                : 42
                : 5-6
                : 332-338
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Neuroscience, Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, Essex, and bBrainomix Limited, Summertown, Oxford, UK; cDepartment of Neurology, and dInstitute of Neuroradiology, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg, Germany
                Article
                CED20160425-6332 Cerebrovasc Dis 2016;42:332-338
                10.1159/000446861
                27304197
                © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, References: 35, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Paper

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