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      Treatment with interleukin-18 binding protein ameliorates Toxoplasma gondii-induced small intestinal pathology that is induced by bone marrow cell-derived interleukin-18

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          Abstract

          Peroral infection with Toxoplasma gondii results in a Th1-type immunopathology characterized by small intestinal necrosis and is dependent on IL-18. In the present study, we investigated whether treatment with IL-18 binding protein (IL-18bp) prevents ileal pathology. We observed increased expression of IL-18bp in intestinal biopsies of mice following infection. Whereas small intestines of control mice showed severe necrosis with complete destruction of the small intestinal architecture, mice treated with IL-18bp daily displayed only mild inflammatory changes including flattening of villi and edema in the space between the epithelium and lamina propria. Small intestinal parasite loads and concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines did not differ in control and IL-18bptreated mice. Binding of IL-18 to immobilized IL-18bp revealed a remarkably slow dissociation rate, indicating high affinity. Using chimeric mice we observed that bone marrow-derived rather than stromal cells were the primary source of IL-18 that resulted in small intestinal pathology following peroral infection with T. gondii. In conclusion, the results presented here suggest that IL-18bp may be an effective and safe treatment for small intestinal inflammation. Antigen-presenting rather than epithelial cells appear to be the main source of IL-18 in T. gondii-induced small intestinal inflammation.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Gram-negative bacteria aggravate murine small intestinal Th1-type immunopathology following oral infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

          Oral infection of susceptible mice with Toxoplasma gondii results in Th1-type immunopathology in the ileum. We investigated gut flora changes during ileitis and determined contributions of gut bacteria to intestinal inflammation. Analysis of the intestinal microflora revealed that ileitis was accompanied by increasing bacterial load, decreasing species diversity, and bacterial translocation. Gram-negative bacteria identified as Escherichia coli and Bacteroides/Prevotella spp. accumulated in inflamed ileum at high concentrations. Prophylactic or therapeutic administration of ciprofloxacin and/or metronidazole ameliorated ileal immunopathology and reduced intestinal NO and IFN-gamma levels. Most strikingly, gnotobiotic mice in which cultivable gut bacteria were removed by quintuple antibiotic treatment did not develop ileitis after Toxoplasma gondii infection. A reduction in total numbers of lymphocytes was observed in the lamina propria of specific pathogen-free (SPF), but not gnotobiotic, mice upon development of ileitis. Relative numbers of CD4(+) T cells did not differ in naive vs infected gnotobiotic or SPF mice, but infected SPF mice showed a significant increase in the frequencies of activated CD4(+) T cells compared with gnotobiotic mice. Furthermore, recolonization with total gut flora, E. coli, or Bacteroides/Prevotella spp., but not Lactobacillus johnsonii, induced immunopathology in gnotobiotic mice. Animals recolonized with E. coli and/or total gut flora, but not L. johnsonii, showed elevated ileal NO and/or IFN-gamma levels. In conclusion, Gram-negative bacteria, i.e., E. coli, aggravate pathogen-induced intestinal Th1-type immunopathology. Thus, pathogen-induced acute ileitis may prove useful to study bacteria-host interactions in small intestinal inflammation and to test novel therapies based on modulation of gut flora.
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            Molecular cloning of the CD2 antigen, the T-cell erythrocyte receptor, by a rapid immunoselection procedure.

             B Seed,  A. Aruffo (1987)
            A cDNA encoding the CD2 antigen has been isolated by a highly efficient technique based on transient expression in COS cells and adherence of cells expressing surface antigen to antibody-coated dishes. COS cells expressing a CD2 cDNA isolated by this method readily formed rosettes with sheep as well as human and other mammalian erythrocytes. Pretreatment of transfected COS cells with anti-CD2 antibody, or pretreatment of human erythrocytes with anti-LFA-3 antibody, abolished rosette formation.
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              Association of CD4+ T cell-dependent, interferon-gamma-mediated necrosis of the small intestine with genetic susceptibility of mice to peroral infection with Toxoplasma gondii

              Since there is a remarkable difference in susceptibility to peroral infection with Toxoplasma gondii among inbred strains of mice, we performed studies to examine the mechanism(s) of this difference in susceptibility. After peroral infection with the ME49 strain of T. gondii, C57BL/6 (B6) mice all died whereas BALB/c mice all survived. At day 7 of infection (when B6 mice began dying), massive necrosis of the villi and mucosal cells in the ilea were observed in B6 but not in BALB/c mice. To analyze the role of T cells in resistance against death and development of necrosis in the ilea after infection, studies were performed using athymic nude and euthymic control B6 and BALB/c mice. Athymic B6 mice all died after infection, but surprisingly, they survived significantly longer than control B6 mice, indicating that T cells predispose to early death in these mice. Necrosis in the ilea was observed in control B6 but not in athymic B6 mice; however, significantly less numbers of tachyzoites were observed in the ilea of the former than the latter mice. These results indicate that necrosis in the ilea of the B6 mice was not due to destruction of tissue by tachyzoites but was mediated by T cells. This deleterious effect of T cells appears to contribute to early death in these mice. In contrast, T cells conferred resistance against death in BALB/c mice but did not cause necrosis in their ilea. To analyze the T cell subset(s) that induces necrosis of the ilea in B6 mice, we examined histological changes of the small intestines after infection of mutant mice deficient in different T cell subsets (with the same H-2b haplotype as B6 mice). Mice deficient in alpha/beta or CD4+ T cells did not develop necrosis in the ilea, whereas wild-type control mice and mice deficient in gamma/delta or CD8+ T cells did, suggesting that the cells that induce necrosis in the ilea after infection are CD4+ alpha/beta T cells. Since interferon (IFN)-gamma has been shown to be critical for survival of BALB/c mice after infection with T. gondii, we examined the role of this cytokine in resistance/susceptibility of infected B6 mice. Treatment of B6 mice with anti-IFN-gamma monoclonal antibody shortly before they developed illness prolonged time to death and prevented necrosis in the ilea in these mice. These results indicate that IFN- gamma mediates necrosis in the ilea of B6 mice after infection. This CD4+ T cell-dependent, IFN-gamma-mediated necrosis of the small intestines appears to be a mechanism that underlies the genetic susceptibility of B6 mice to peroral infection with T. gondii, whereas the same cytokine plays a critical role in the resistance of genetically resistant BALB/c mice.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                1886
                122234
                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                EuJMI
                Akadémiai Kiadó, co-published with Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V.
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                1 September 2012
                : 2
                : 3
                : 249-257
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Institut für Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Charité — Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany
                [ 2 ] Institut für Laboratoriumsmedizin und Pathobiochemie, Charité — Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany
                [ 3 ] Abteilung Immunologie, Max-Planck Institut für Infektionsbiologie Berlin, Berlin, Germany
                [ 4 ] Abteilung für Gastroenterologie, Hepatologie and Infektiologie, Klinik für Innere Medizin II, Universitätsklinikum Jena der Friedrich Schiller Universität Jena, Jena, Germany
                [ 5 ] Institut für Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Krankenhaushygiene der Philipps Universität Marburg, Hans-Meerwein Straße 2, 35032, Marburg, Germany
                [ 6 ] Medical and Scientific Affairs, Roche Molecular Diagnostics, Pleasanton, CA, USA
                [ 7 ] Institut für Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Charité — Campus Benjamin Franklin, Hindenburgdamm 27, D-12203, Berlin, Germany
                Author notes

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                [* ] +49-30-844-53628, +49-30-844-53620, oliver.liesenfeld@ 123456charite.de
                Article
                11
                10.1556/EuJMI.2.2012.3.11
                3962761
                24688772
                Categories
                Original Articles

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