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      Signaling pathways in cancer-associated fibroblasts and targeted therapy for cancer

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          Abstract

          To flourish, cancers greatly depend on their surrounding tumor microenvironment (TME), and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in TME are critical for cancer occurrence and progression because of their versatile roles in extracellular matrix remodeling, maintenance of stemness, blood vessel formation, modulation of tumor metabolism, immune response, and promotion of cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and therapeutic resistance. CAFs are highly heterogeneous stromal cells and their crosstalk with cancer cells is mediated by a complex and intricate signaling network consisting of transforming growth factor-beta, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin, mitogen-activated protein kinase, Wnt, Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription, epidermal growth factor receptor, Hippo, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, etc., signaling pathways. These signals in CAFs exhibit their own special characteristics during the cancer progression and have the potential to be targeted for anticancer therapy. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of these signaling cascades in interactions between cancer cells and CAFs is necessary to fully realize the pivotal roles of CAFs in cancers. Herein, in this review, we will summarize the enormous amounts of findings on the signals mediating crosstalk of CAFs with cancer cells and its related targets or trials. Further, we hypothesize three potential targeting strategies, including, namely, epithelial–mesenchymal common targets, sequential target perturbation, and crosstalk-directed signaling targets, paving the way for CAF-directed or host cell-directed antitumor therapy.

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          Global cancer statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries

          This article provides an update on the global cancer burden using the GLOBOCAN 2020 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Worldwide, an estimated 19.3 million new cancer cases (18.1 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and almost 10.0 million cancer deaths (9.9 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) occurred in 2020. Female breast cancer has surpassed lung cancer as the most commonly diagnosed cancer, with an estimated 2.3 million new cases (11.7%), followed by lung (11.4%), colorectal (10.0 %), prostate (7.3%), and stomach (5.6%) cancers. Lung cancer remained the leading cause of cancer death, with an estimated 1.8 million deaths (18%), followed by colorectal (9.4%), liver (8.3%), stomach (7.7%), and female breast (6.9%) cancers. Overall incidence was from 2-fold to 3-fold higher in transitioned versus transitioning countries for both sexes, whereas mortality varied <2-fold for men and little for women. Death rates for female breast and cervical cancers, however, were considerably higher in transitioning versus transitioned countries (15.0 vs 12.8 per 100,000 and 12.4 vs 5.2 per 100,000, respectively). The global cancer burden is expected to be 28.4 million cases in 2040, a 47% rise from 2020, with a larger increase in transitioning (64% to 95%) versus transitioned (32% to 56%) countries due to demographic changes, although this may be further exacerbated by increasing risk factors associated with globalization and a growing economy. Efforts to build a sustainable infrastructure for the dissemination of cancer prevention measures and provision of cancer care in transitioning countries is critical for global cancer control.
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            Global Cancer Statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries

            This article provides a status report on the global burden of cancer worldwide using the GLOBOCAN 2018 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, with a focus on geographic variability across 20 world regions. There will be an estimated 18.1 million new cancer cases (17.0 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and 9.6 million cancer deaths (9.5 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) in 2018. In both sexes combined, lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer (11.6% of the total cases) and the leading cause of cancer death (18.4% of the total cancer deaths), closely followed by female breast cancer (11.6%), prostate cancer (7.1%), and colorectal cancer (6.1%) for incidence and colorectal cancer (9.2%), stomach cancer (8.2%), and liver cancer (8.2%) for mortality. Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among males, followed by prostate and colorectal cancer (for incidence) and liver and stomach cancer (for mortality). Among females, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, followed by colorectal and lung cancer (for incidence), and vice versa (for mortality); cervical cancer ranks fourth for both incidence and mortality. The most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, however, substantially vary across countries and within each country depending on the degree of economic development and associated social and life style factors. It is noteworthy that high-quality cancer registry data, the basis for planning and implementing evidence-based cancer control programs, are not available in most low- and middle-income countries. The Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development is an international partnership that supports better estimation, as well as the collection and use of local data, to prioritize and evaluate national cancer control efforts. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2018;0:1-31. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
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              Cancer statistics, 2020

              Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths that will occur in the United States and compiles the most recent data on population-based cancer occurrence. Incidence data (through 2016) were collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program; the National Program of Cancer Registries; and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Mortality data (through 2017) were collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. In 2020, 1,806,590 new cancer cases and 606,520 cancer deaths are projected to occur in the United States. The cancer death rate rose until 1991, then fell continuously through 2017, resulting in an overall decline of 29% that translates into an estimated 2.9 million fewer cancer deaths than would have occurred if peak rates had persisted. This progress is driven by long-term declines in death rates for the 4 leading cancers (lung, colorectal, breast, prostate); however, over the past decade (2008-2017), reductions slowed for female breast and colorectal cancers, and halted for prostate cancer. In contrast, declines accelerated for lung cancer, from 3% annually during 2008 through 2013 to 5% during 2013 through 2017 in men and from 2% to almost 4% in women, spurring the largest ever single-year drop in overall cancer mortality of 2.2% from 2016 to 2017. Yet lung cancer still caused more deaths in 2017 than breast, prostate, colorectal, and brain cancers combined. Recent mortality declines were also dramatic for melanoma of the skin in the wake of US Food and Drug Administration approval of new therapies for metastatic disease, escalating to 7% annually during 2013 through 2017 from 1% during 2006 through 2010 in men and women aged 50 to 64 years and from 2% to 3% in those aged 20 to 49 years; annual declines of 5% to 6% in individuals aged 65 years and older are particularly striking because rates in this age group were increasing prior to 2013. It is also notable that long-term rapid increases in liver cancer mortality have attenuated in women and stabilized in men. In summary, slowing momentum for some cancers amenable to early detection is juxtaposed with notable gains for other common cancers.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                zhouhm@scu.edu.cn
                Journal
                Signal Transduct Target Ther
                Signal Transduct Target Ther
                Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2095-9907
                2059-3635
                10 June 2021
                10 June 2021
                2021
                : 6
                : 218
                Affiliations
                GRID grid.13291.38, ISNI 0000 0001 0807 1581, State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Center of Stomatology, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, , Sichuan University, ; Chengdu, Sichuan People’s Republic of China
                Article
                641
                10.1038/s41392-021-00641-0
                8190181
                34108441
                3bae297e-4b47-4f50-8e94-32215a457c3c
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 18 February 2021
                : 20 April 2021
                : 6 May 2021
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China (National Science Foundation of China);
                Award ID: No. 82071124
                Award ID: No. 81772898
                Award ID: No. 82002884
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Sichuan Science and Technology Program (No. 2021YFH0143), Science and Technology Program of Chengdu City (No. 2019YF0501151SN)
                Funded by: Sichuan Science and Technology Program (No. 2019YFS0361)
                Funded by: Sichuan Science and Technology Program (No. 2021YFS0194)
                Categories
                Review Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2021

                drug development,cancer microenvironment
                drug development, cancer microenvironment

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