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      Proteomics of Buccal Cavity Mucus in Female Tilapia Fish ( Oreochromis spp.): A Comparison between Parental and Non-Parental Fish


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          Mouthbrooding is an elaborate form of parental care displayed by many teleost species. While the direct benefits of mouthbrooding such as protection and transportation of offsprings are known, it is unclear if mouthbrooding offers additional benefits to embryos during incubation. In addition, mouthbrooding could incur negative costs on parental fish, due to limited feeding opportunities. Parental tilapia fish ( Oreochromis spp.) display an elaborated form of parental care by incubating newly hatched embryos in oral buccal cavity until the complete adsorption of yolk sac. In order to understand the functional aspects of mouthbrooding, we undertake a proteomics approach to compare oral mucus sampled from mouthbrooders and non-mouthbrooders, respectively. Majority of the identified proteins have also been previously identified in other biological fluids or mucus-rich organs in different organisms. We also showed the upregulation of 22 proteins and down regulation of 3 proteins in mucus collected from mouthbrooders. Anterior gradient protein, hemoglobin beta-A chain and alpha-2 globin levels were lower in mouthbrooder samples. Mouthbrooder oral mucus collectively showed increase levels of proteins related to cytoskeletal properties, glycolytic pathway and mediation of oxidative stress. Overall the findings suggest cellular stress response, probably to support production of mucus during mouthbrooding phase.

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          Déjà vu in proteomics. A hit parade of repeatedly identified differentially expressed proteins.

          After reading many 2-DE-based articles featuring lists of the differentially expressed proteins, one starts experiencing a disturbing déjà vu. The same proteins seem to predominate regardless of the experiment, tissue or species. To quantify the occurrence of individual differentially expressed proteins in 2-DE experiment reports, we compiled the identities of differentially expressed proteins identified in human, mouse, and rat tissues published in three recent volumes of Proteomics and calculated the appearance of the most predominant proteins in the dataset. The most frequently identified protein is a highly abundant glycolytic enzyme enolase 1, differentially expressed in nearly every third experiment on both human and rodent tissues. Heat-shock protein 27 (HSP27) and heat-shock protein 60 (HSP60) were differentially expressed in about 30 percent of human and rodent samples, respectively. Considering protein families as units, keratins and peroxiredoxins are the most frequently identified molecules, with at least one member of the group being differentially expressed in about 40 percent of all experiments. We suggest that the frequent identification of these proteins must be considered in the interpretation of any 2-DE studies. We consider if these commonly observed changes represent common cellular stress responses or are a reflection of the technical limitations of 2-DE.
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            Large-scale identification of proteins in human salivary proteome by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.

            Human saliva contains a large number of proteins and peptides (salivary proteome) that help maintain homeostasis in the oral cavity. Global analysis of human salivary proteome is important for understanding oral health and disease pathogenesis. In this study, large-scale identification of salivary proteins was demonstrated by using shotgun proteomics and two-dimensinal gel electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (2-DE-MS). For the shotgun approach, whole saliva proteins were prefractionated according to molecular weight. The smallest fraction, presumably containing salivary peptides, was directly separated by capillary liquid chromatography (LC). However, the large protein fractions were digested into peptides for subsequent LC separation. Separated peptides were analyzed by on-line electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using a quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer, and the obtained spectra were automatically processed to search human protein sequence database for protein identification. Additionally, 2-DE was used to map out the proteins in whole saliva. Protein spots 105 in number were excised and in-gel digested; and the resulting peptide fragments were measured by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry and sequenced by LC-MS/MS for protein identification. In total, we cataloged 309 proteins from human whole saliva by using these two proteomic approaches.
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              Human homologue of cement gland protein, a novel metastasis inducer associated with breast carcinomas.

              A suppression subtractive cDNA library representing mRNAs expressed at a higher level in the malignant human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, relative to a benign breast tumor-derived cell line, Huma 123, contained a cDNA, M36, which was expressed in estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha)-positive breast carcinoma cell lines but not in cell lines from normal/benign/ERalpha-negative malignant breast lesions. M36 cDNA had an identical coding sequence to anterior gradient 2 (AGR2), the human homologue of the cement gland-specific gene (Xenopus laevis). Screening of breast tumor specimens using reverse transcription-PCR and immunocytochemistry with affinity-purified anti-AGR2 antibodies showed that the presence of AGR2 mRNA and protein were both statistically significantly associated with ERalpha-positive carcinomas (P = 0.007, Fisher's exact test) and with malignancy (P < or = 0.025). When an expression vector for AGR2 cDNA was introduced into benign nonmetastatic rat mammary tumor cells, and three separate clones and two pools of cells were transferred to the mammary glands of syngeneic hosts, there were no consistent differences in the mean latent periods of tumor formation. However, metastases occurred in the lungs of animals receiving the AGR2 transfectants in 77% to 92% of animals with primary tumors (P = 0.0001) compared with no metastases in the control groups. The AGR2 transfectants exhibited enhanced rates of adhesion to a plastic substratum and extracellular AGR2 enhanced the rate of attachment of AGR2-negative but not AGR2-positive cells. These experiments are the first to link mechanistically the developmental gene product, AGR2, with metastasis in vivo.

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                20 April 2011
                : 6
                : 4
                [1 ]School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Penang, Malaysia
                [2 ]Assay Development Division, Malaysian Institute of Pharmaceuticals and Nutraceuticals, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, Gelugor, Penang, Malaysia
                University of South Florida College of Medicine, United States of America
                Author notes

                Conceived and designed the experiments: ACSC. Performed the experiments: KCI. Analyzed the data: ACSC KCI. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: ACSC. Wrote the paper: ACSC KCI.

                Iq, Shu-Chien. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                Page count
                Pages: 7
                Research Article
                Fish Farming
                Anatomy and Physiology
                Proteomic Databases
                Animal Behavior
                Animal Physiology



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