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      Ecology of phlebotomine sandflies and putative reservoir hosts of leishmaniasis in a border area in Northeastern Mexico: implications for the risk of transmission of Leishmania mexicana in Mexico and the USA Translated title: Écologie des phlébotomes et hôtes putatifs de la leishmaniose dans une zone frontalière du nord-est du Mexique : implications pour le risque de transmission de Leishmania mexicana au Mexique et aux États-Unis

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          Abstract

          Leishmaniases are a group of important diseases transmitted to humans through the bite of sandfly vectors. Several forms of leishmaniases are endemic in Mexico and especially in the Southeast region. In the Northeastern region, however, there have only been isolated reports of cases and scanty records of sandfly vectors. The main objective of this study was to analyze the diversity of sandflies and potential reservoir hosts of Leishmania spp. in the states of Nuevo León and Tamaulipas. Species richness and abundances of sandflies and rodents were recorded. A fraction of the caught sandflies was analyzed by PCR to detect Leishmania spp. Tissues from captured rodents were also screened for infection. Ecological Niche Models (ENMs) were computed for species of rodent and their association with crop-growing areas. We found 13 species of sandflies, several of which are first records for this region. Medically important species such as Lutzomyia anthophora, Lutzomyia diabolica, Lutzomyia cruciata, and Lutzomyia shannoni were documented. Leishmania spp. infection was not detected in sandflies. Nine species of rodents were recorded, and Leishmania ( Leishmania) mexicana infection was found in four species of Peromyscus and Sigmodon. ENMs showed that potential distribution of rodent pest species overlaps with allocated crop areas. This shows that Leishmania ( L.) mexicana infection is present in the Northeastern region of Mexico, and that previously unrecorded sandfly species occur in the same areas. These findings suggest a potential risk of transmission of Leishmania ( L.) mexicana.

          Translated abstract

          Les leishmanioses sont un groupe de maladies importantes transmises aux humains par piqûre des phlébotomes vecteurs. Plusieurs formes de leishmanioses sont endémiques au Mexique, surtout dans la région du sud-est. Dans la région du nord-est, cependant, il n’y a eu que des rapports isolés de cas et quelques signalements de phlébotomes. L’objectif principal de cette étude était d’analyser la diversité des phlébotomes et des hôtes-réservoirs potentiels de Leishmania spp. dans les états de Nuevo León et Tamaulipas. La richesse en espèces et l’abondance des phlébotomes et des rongeurs ont été étudiées. Une fraction des phlébotomes capturés a été analysée par PCR pour détecter les Leishmania spp. Les tissus des rongeurs capturés ont également été criblés pour détecter une infection. Les modèles de niches écologiques (ENM) ont été calculés pour les espèces de rongeurs et leur association avec les zones cultivées. Nous avons trouvé treize espèces de phlébotomes, dont plusieurs sont des premières mentions pour cette région. Des espèces médicalement importantes telles que Lutzomyia anthophora, Lutzomyia diabolica, Lutzomyia cruciata et Lutzomyia shannoni ont été documentées. L’infection par Leishmania spp. n’a pas été détectée chez les phlébotomes. Neuf espèces de rongeurs ont été collectées, et une infection par Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana a été trouvée chez quatre espèces de Peromyscus et Sigmodon. L’ENM a montré que la répartition potentielle des espèces de rongeurs chevauche les zones allouées aux cultures. Cela montre que l’infection à Leishmania (L.) mexicana est présente dans la région nord-est du Mexique et que des espèces de phlébotomes précédemment non mentionnées se trouvent dans les mêmes zones. Ces résultats suggèrent un risque potentiel de transmission de Leishmania (L.) mexicana.

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          PATTERNS OF SPECIES DIVERSITY

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            The checkerboard score and species distributions

            There has been an ongoing controversy over how to decide whether the distribution of species is "random" - i.e., whether it is not greatly different from what it would be if species did not interact. We recently showed (Roberts and Stone (1990)) that in the case of the Vanuatu (formerly New Hebrides) avifauna, the number of islands shared by species pairs was incompatible with a "random" null hypothesis. However, it was difficult to determine the causes or direction of the community's exceptionality. In this paper, the latter problem is examined further. We use Diamond's (1975) notion of checkerboard distributions (originally developed as an indicator of competition) and construct a C-score statistic which quantifies "checkerboardedness". This statistic is based on the way two species might colonise a pair of islands; whenever each species colonises a different island this adds 1 to the C-score. Following Connor and Simberloff (1979) we generate a "control group" of random colonisation patterns (matrices), and use the C-score to determine their checkerboard characteristics. As an alternative mode of enquiry, we make slight alterations to the observed data, repeating this process many times so as to obtain another "control group". In both cases, when we compare the observed data for the Vanuatu avifauna and the Antillean bat communities with that given by their respective "control group", we find that these communities have significantly large checkerboard distributions, making implausible the hypothesis that their species distributions are a product of random colonisation.
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              The Relation between Evenness and Diversity

               Lou Jost (2010)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2017
                21 August 2017
                : 24
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2017/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Laboratorio de Entomología Médica, Departamento de Zoología de Invertebrados, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León Av. Universidad S/N, Cd. Universitaria C.P. 66450 San Nicolás de los Garza Nuevo León México
                [2 ] Departamento de Zoología Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior S/N C.P. 04510 Coyoacán Ciudad de México México
                [3 ] Unidad de Investigación en Medicina Experimental, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Dr. Balmis #148, Colonia Doctores C.P. 06726 Ciudad de México México
                [4 ] Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Batalla 5 de mayo S/N esquina Fuerte de Loreto, Col. Ejército de Oriente Iztapalapa C.P. 09230 Ciudad de México México
                [5 ] Centro de Ciencias de la Complejidad, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Circuito Exterior S/N. C.P. 04510 Cd. Universitaria, Ciudad de México México
                [6 ] Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Circuito Exterior S/N. C.P. 04510 Coyoacán Ciudad de México México
                [7 ] Centro de Investigación en Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León Av. Carlos Canseco S/N. C.P. 64460 Mitras Centro, Monterrey Nuevo León México
                [8 ] Centro Regional de Investigación en Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública 19 Poniente Esquina 4ª Norte S/N. C.P. 30700 Centro Tapachula Chiapas México
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. eduardo.rebollartl@ 123456uanl.edu.mx

                Special Issue – ISOPS IX – International Symposium on Phlebotomine Sandflies.

                Invited Editors: Jérôme Depaquit, Bernard Pesson, Denis Augot, James Gordon Campbell Hamilton, Phillip Lawyer, and Nicole Léger

                Article
                parasite170045 10.1051/parasite/2017034
                10.1051/parasite/2017034
                5564009
                28825400
                © J. Rodríguez-Rojas et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 94, Pages: 17
                Categories
                Special Issue - ISOPS 9 - International Symposium on Phlebotomine Sandflies
                Research Article

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