This updated meta-analysis was conducted to assess the association between coffee consumption and breast cancer risk.
We conducted a systematic search updated July 2012 to identify observational studies providing quantitative estimates for breast cancer risk in relation to coffee consumption. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model, and generalized least square trend estimation was used to assess dose–response relationships.
A total of 26 studies (16 cohort and 10 case–control studies) on coffee intake with 49497 breast cancer cases were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RR showed a borderline significant influence of highest coffee consumption (RR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.93–1.00), low-to moderate coffee consumption (RR = 0.99; 95% CI 0.95–1.04), or an increment of 2 cups/day of coffee consumption (RR = 0.98; 95% CI 0.97–1.00) on the risk of breast cancer. In stratified analysis, a significant inverse association was observed in ER-negative subgroup. However, no significant association was noted in the others.
Our findings suggest that increased coffee intake is not associated with a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer, but we observe an inverse association in ER-negative subgroup analysis. More large studies are needed to determine subgroups to obtain more valuable data on coffee drinking and breast cancer risk.