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      Effect of ELOM-080 on exacerbations and symptoms in COPD patients with a chronic bronchitis phenotype – a post-hoc analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

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          Abstract

          Background

          Treating symptoms and preventing exacerbations are key components of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) long-term management. Recently, a more tailored treatment approach has been proposed, in particular for two well-established clinical phenotypes, frequent exacerbators and chronic bronchitis-dominant COPD. ELOM-080 has demonstrated clinical efficacy in treating symptoms and preventing exacerbations in subjects with chronic bronchitis. However, little is known about the potential effects of ELOM-080 in COPD patients.

          Aim

          To evaluate the effect on exacerbation, cough sputum, and general state of health of long-term treatment with ELOM-080 in COPD patients with an exacerbation history and chronic bronchitis.

          Methods

          We performed a post-hoc analysis of a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled parallel-group clinical trial of a 6-month treatment with ELOM-080 (3×300 mg) in patients with chronic bronchitis and concomitant COPD. The primary outcome was the proportion of subjects with at least one exacerbation over the 6-month study period. Secondary outcomes included the total number of exacerbations (ie, cumulative occurrence of exacerbations during the study period) and the proportion of acute exacerbations necessitating an antibiotic treatment, monthly evaluations of sputum and cough symptoms, and the general state of health and a safety analysis.

          Results

          Of 260 randomized subjects, 64 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria for COPD (ELOM-080: 35, placebo: 29). Compared to placebo, ELOM-080 reduced the percentage of subjects with at least one exacerbation (29% versus 55%, P=0.031) and a reduction in the overall occurrence of exacerbations (ELOM-080: 10, placebo: 21, P=0.012) during the winter season. The percentage of asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic patients (sputum/expectoration and cough) was consistently higher in the ELOM-080 group compared to placebo, with statistical significant differences after 2 and 3 months of treatment (2 months: ELOM-080 25%, placebo 11%, P<0.005; 3 months: ELOM-080 26%, placebo 14%, P<0.05). Likewise the subjective rating of general health status was better in the ELOM-080 group with statistically significant superiority after 2 and 3 months of treatment (2-month treatment: P=0.015; 3-month treatment: P=0.024). Tolerability results were comparable between ELOM-080 and placebo.

          Conclusion

          ELOM-080 is efficacious in patients with COPD and a chronic bronchitis phenotype. Prophylactic use reduces the rate of exacerbations and improves the key symptoms of sputum and cough with a favorable long-term tolerability profile.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Respiratory viruses, symptoms, and inflammatory markers in acute exacerbations and stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

          The effects of respiratory viral infection on the time course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation were examined by monitoring changes in systemic inflammatory markers in stable COPD and at exacerbation. Eighty-three patients with COPD (mean [SD] age, 66.6 [7.1] yr, FEV(1), 1.06 [0.61] L) recorded daily peak expiratory flow rate and any increases in respiratory symptoms. Nasal samples and blood were taken for respiratory virus detection by culture, polymerase chain reaction, and serology, and plasma fibrinogen and serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined at stable baseline and exacerbation. Sixty-four percent of exacerbations were associated with a cold occurring up to 18 d before exacerbation. Seventy-seven viruses (39 [58.2%] rhinoviruses) were detected in 66 (39.2%) of 168 COPD exacerbations in 53 (64%) patients. Viral exacerbations were associated with frequent exacerbators, colds with increased dyspnea, a higher total symptom count at presentation, a longer median symptom recovery period of 13 d, and a tendency toward higher plasma fibrinogen and serum IL-6 levels. Non-respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) respiratory viruses were detected in 11 (16%), and RSV in 16 (23.5%), of 68 stable COPD patients, with RSV detection associated with higher inflammatory marker levels. Respiratory virus infections are associated with more severe and frequent exacerbations, and may cause chronic infection in COPD. Prevention and early treatment of viral infections may lead to a decreased exacerbation frequency and morbidity associated with COPD.
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            Tiotropium versus salmeterol for the prevention of exacerbations of COPD.

            Treatment guidelines recommend the use of inhaled long-acting bronchodilators to alleviate symptoms and reduce the risk of exacerbations in patients with moderate-to-very-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but do not specify whether a long-acting anticholinergic drug or a β(2)-agonist is the preferred agent. We investigated whether the anticholinergic drug tiotropium is superior to the β(2)-agonist salmeterol in preventing exacerbations of COPD. In a 1-year, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group trial, we compared the effect of treatment with 18 μg of tiotropium once daily with that of 50 μg of salmeterol twice daily on the incidence of moderate or severe exacerbations in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD and a history of exacerbations in the preceding year. A total of 7376 patients were randomly assigned to and treated with tiotropium (3707 patients) or salmeterol (3669 patients). Tiotropium, as compared with salmeterol, increased the time to the first exacerbation (187 days vs. 145 days), with a 17% reduction in risk (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77 to 0.90; P<0.001). Tiotropium also increased the time to the first severe exacerbation (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.85; P<0.001), reduced the annual number of moderate or severe exacerbations (0.64 vs. 0.72; rate ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.96; P=0.002), and reduced the annual number of severe exacerbations (0.09 vs. 0.13; rate ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.82; P<0.001). Overall, the incidence of serious adverse events and of adverse events leading to the discontinuation of treatment was similar in the two study groups. There were 64 deaths (1.7%) in the tiotropium group and 78 (2.1%) in the salmeterol group. These results show that, in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD, tiotropium is more effective than salmeterol in preventing exacerbations. (Funded by Boehringer Ingelheim and Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00563381.).
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              Relationship of sputum color to nature and outpatient management of acute exacerbations of COPD.

              To stratify COPD patients presenting with an acute exacerbation on the basis of sputum color and to relate this to the isolation and viable numbers of bacteria recovered on culture. Open, longitudinal study of sputum characteristics and acute-phase proteins. Patients presenting to primary-care physicians in the United Kingdom. Patients were followed up as outpatients in specialist clinic. One hundred twenty-one patients with acute exacerbations of COPD were assessed together with a single sputum sample on the day of presentation (89 of whom produced a satisfactory sputum sample for analysis). One hundred nine patients were assessed 2 months later when they had returned to their stable clinical state. The expectoration of green, purulent sputum was taken as the primary indication for antibiotic therapy, whereas white or clear sputum was not considered representative of a bacterial episode and the need for antibiotic therapy. A positive bacterial culture was obtained from 84% of patients sputum if it was purulent on presentation compared with only 38% if it was mucoid (p < 0.0001). When restudied in the stable clinical state, the incidence of a positive bacterial culture was similar for both groups (38% and 41%, respectively). C-reactive protein concentrations were significantly raised (p < 0.0001) if the sputum was purulent (median, 4.5 mg/L; interquartile range [IQR], 6. 2 to 35.8). In the stable clinical state, sputum color improved significantly in the group who presented with purulent sputum from a median color number of 4.0 (IQR, 4.0 to 5.0) to 3.0 (IQR, 2.0 to 4. 0; p < 0.0001), and this was associated with a fall in median C-reactive protein level to 2.7 mg/L (IQR, 1.0 to 6.6; p < 0.0001). The presence of green (purulent) sputum was 94.4% sensitive and 77.0% specific for the yield of a high bacterial load and indicates a clear subset of patient episodes identified at presentation that is likely to benefit most from antibiotic therapy. All patients who produced white (mucoid) sputum during the acute exacerbation improved without antibiotic therapy, and sputum characteristics remained the same even when the patients had returned to their stable clinical state.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2016
                23 November 2016
                : 11
                : 2877-2884
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Insaf Respiratory Research Institute, Wiesbaden, Germany
                [2 ]G. Pohl-Boskamp GmbH & Co KG, Hohenlockstedt, Germany
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Kai-Michael Beeh, Insaf Respiratory Research Institute GmbH, Biebricher Allee 34, D-65187 Wiesbaden, Germany, Tel +49 611 985 4410, Email k.beeh@ 123456insaf-wi.de
                Article
                copd-11-2877
                10.2147/COPD.S117652
                5125994
                © 2016 Beeh et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                sputum, exacerbations, winter, phytotherapy, myrtol, chronic bronchitis, copd

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