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      A Multimodal Pain Management Protocol Including Preoperative Cryoneurolysis for Total Knee Arthroplasty to Reduce Pain, Opioid Consumption, and Length of Stay

      , MD , , PA-C, , PA-C

      Arthroplasty Today

      Elsevier

      Cryoanalgesia, Multimodal analgesia, Knee replacement, Orthopedic surgery, Pain management

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          Abstract

          Background

          A retrospective analysis was conducted to determine if cryoneurolysis of superficial genicular nerves combined with standard care decreased postoperative opioids and pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

          Methods

          Data from patients who underwent TKA at a single center were analyzed. Patients who received standardized cryoneurolysis before TKA were compared with a historical control group including patients who underwent TKA without cryoneurolysis. Both groups received a similar perioperative multimodal pain management protocol. The primary outcome was opioid intake at various time points from hospital stay to 6 weeks after discharge. Additional outcomes included pain, length of stay, and range of motion.

          Results

          The analysis included 267 patients (cryoneurolysis group: n = 169; control group: n = 98). During the hospital stay, the cryoneurolysis group had 51% lower daily morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs) (47 vs 97 MMEs; ratio estimate, 0.49 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.43-0.56]; P < .0001) and 22% lower mean pain score (ratio estimate, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.70-0.88]; P < .0001) vs the control group. The cryoneurolysis group received significantly fewer cumulative MMEs, including discharge prescriptions, than the control group at week 2 (855 vs 1312 MMEs; ratio estimate, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.59-0.73]; P < .0001) and week 6 (894 vs 1406 MMEs; ratio estimate, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.57-0.71]; P < .0001). The cryoneurolysis group had significant 44% reduction in overall length of stay ( P < .0001) and greater flexion degree at discharge ( P < .0001).

          Conclusions

          Addition of preoperative cryoneurolysis to a multimodal pain management protocol reduced opioids and in-hospital pain and optimized outcomes during the 6-week recovery period after TKA.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Opioid-related adverse drug events in surgical hospitalizations: impact on costs and length of stay.

          Opioid analgesics remain a mainstay in the treatment of pain associated with surgical procedures. Such use is associated with adverse drug events (ADEs). To investigate the impact of opioid-related ADEs on total hospital costs and length of stay (LOS) in adult surgical patients. This was a retrospective matched cohort study using data from computerized medical records. ADE cases were prospectively detected using computerized surveillance and verified by pharmacists. Surgical patients treated at LDS Hospital in Salt Lake City from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2003, were included. The primary outcomes were costs and hospital LOS associated with opioid-related ADEs and the relationship of opioid dose to ADE events. Patients experiencing opioid-related ADEs had significantly increased median total hospital costs (7.4% increase; 95% CI 3.83 to 10.96; p < 0.001) and increased median LOS (10.3% increase; 95% CI 6.5 to 14.2; p < 0.001) compared with matched non-ADE controls. The increased costs attributable to ADEs, by surgery type, were general surgery ($676.51; 95% CI 351.50 to 1001.50), orthopedics ($861.50; 95% CI 448.20 to 1274.80), and obstetrics/gynecology ($540.90; 95% CI 281.40 to 800.40). Similarly, increased LOS attributable to ADEs, by surgery type, were general surgery (0.64 days; 95% CI 0.40 to 0.88), orthopedics (0.52 days; 95% CI 0.33 to 0.71), and obstetrics/gynecology (0.53 days; 95% CI 0.33 to 0.72). Higher doses of opioids were associated with increased risk of experiencing ADEs (OR 1.3; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.60; p = 0.01). Opioid-related ADEs following surgery were associated with significantly increased LOS and hospitalization costs. These ADEs occurred more frequently in patients receiving higher doses of opioids.
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            Trends and predictors of opioid use after total knee and total hip arthroplasty.

            Few studies have assessed postoperative trends in opioid cessation and predictors of persistent opioid use after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA). Preoperatively, 574 TKA and THA patients completed validated, self-report measures of pain, functioning, and mood and were longitudinally assessed for 6 months after surgery. Among patients who were opioid naive the day of surgery, 8.2% of TKA and 4.3% of THA patients were using opioids at 6 months. In comparison, 53.3% of TKA and 34.7% of THA patients who reported opioid use the day of surgery continued to use opioids at 6 months. Patients taking >60 mg oral morphine equivalents preoperatively had an 80% likelihood of persistent use postoperatively. Day of surgery predictors for 6-month opioid use by opioid-naive patients included greater overall body pain (P = 0.002), greater affected joint pain (knee/hip) (P = 0.034), and greater catastrophizing (P = 0.010). For both opioid-naive and opioid users on the day of surgery, decreases in overall body pain from baseline to 6 months were associated with decreased odds of being on opioids at 6 months (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.72, P = 0.050; aOR = 0.62, P = 0.001); however, change in affected joint pain (knee/hip) was not predictive of opioid use (aOR = 0.99, P = 0.939; aOR = 1.00, P = 0.963). In conclusion, many patients taking opioids before surgery continue to use opioids after arthroplasty and some opioid-naive patients remained on opioids; however, persistent opioid use was not associated with change in joint pain. Given the growing concerns about chronic opioid use, the reasons for persistent opioid use and perioperative prescribing of opioids deserve further study.
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              Poorly controlled postoperative pain: prevalence, consequences, and prevention

               Tong Gan (2017)
              This review provides an overview of the clinical issue of poorly controlled postoperative pain and therapeutic approaches that may help to address this common unresolved health-care challenge. Postoperative pain is not adequately managed in greater than 80% of patients in the US, although rates vary depending on such factors as type of surgery performed, analgesic/anesthetic intervention used, and time elapsed after surgery. Poorly controlled acute postoperative pain is associated with increased morbidity, functional and quality-of-life impairment, delayed recovery time, prolonged duration of opioid use, and higher health-care costs. In addition, the presence and intensity of acute pain during or after surgery is predictive of the development of chronic pain. More effective analgesic/anesthetic measures in the perioperative period are needed to prevent the progression to persistent pain. Although clinical findings are inconsistent, some studies of local anesthetics and nonopioid analgesics have suggested potential benefits as preventive interventions. Conventional opioids remain the standard of care for the management of acute postoperative pain; however, the risk of opioid-related adverse events can limit optimal dosing for analgesia, leading to poorly controlled acute postoperative pain. Several new opioids have been developed that modulate μ-receptor activity by selectively engaging intracellular pathways associated with analgesia and not those associated with adverse events, creating a wider therapeutic window than unselective conventional opioids. In clinical studies, oliceridine (TRV130), a novel μ-receptor G-protein pathway-selective modulator, produced rapid postoperative analgesia with reduced prevalence of adverse events versus morphine.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Arthroplast Today
                Arthroplast Today
                Arthroplasty Today
                Elsevier
                2352-3441
                12 July 2021
                August 2021
                12 July 2021
                : 10
                : 87-92
                Affiliations
                OrthoNebraska, Omaha, NE, USA
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. 2725 S 144th St, Ste 212, Omaha, NE 68144, USA. Tel.: +1 402 609 3000. joshua.urban@ 123456orthonebraska.com
                Article
                S2352-3441(21)00105-9
                10.1016/j.artd.2021.06.008
                8280475
                34286056
                © 2021 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                Categories
                Original Research

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