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      Stability of Chitosan—A Challenge for Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Applications

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          Abstract

          Chitosan—one of the natural multifunctional polymers—due to its unique and versatile biological properties is regarded as a useful compound in medical and pharmaceutical technology. Recently, considerable research effort has been made in order to develop safe and efficient chitosan products. However, the problem of poor stability of chitosan-based systems restricts its practical applicability; thus, it has become a great challenge to establish sufficient shelf-life for chitosan formulations. Improved stability can be assessed by controlling the environmental factors, manipulating processing conditions (e.g., temperature), introducing a proper stabilizing compound, developing chitosan blends with another polymer, or modifying the chitosan structure using chemical or ionic agents. This review covers the influence of internal, environmental, and processing factors on the long-term stability of chitosan products. The aim of this paper is also to highlight the latest developments which enable the physicochemical properties of chitosan-based applications to be preserved upon storage.

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          Antimicrobial properties of chitosan and mode of action: a state of the art review.

          Owing to its high biodegradability, and nontoxicity and antimicrobial properties, chitosan is widely-used as an antimicrobial agent either alone or blended with other natural polymers. To broaden chitosan's antimicrobial applicability, comprehensive knowledge of its activity is necessary. The paper reviews the current trend of investigation on antimicrobial activities of chitosan and its mode of action. Chitosan-mediated inhibition is affected by several factors can be classified into four types as intrinsic, environmental, microorganism and physical state, according to their respective roles. In this review, different physical states are comparatively discussed. Mode of antimicrobial action is discussed in parts of the active compound (chitosan) and the target (microorganisms) collectively and independently in same complex. Finally, the general antimicrobial applications of chitosan and perspectives about future studies in this field are considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            Chitosan—A versatile semi-synthetic polymer in biomedical applications

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              Application of chitosan-based polysaccharide biomaterials in cartilage tissue engineering: a review.

              Once damaged, articular cartilage has very little capacity for spontaneous healing because of the avascular nature of the tissue. Although many repair techniques have been proposed over the past four decades, none has sucessfully regenerated long-lasting hyaline cartilage tissue to replace damaged cartilage. Tissue engineering approaches, such as transplantation of isolated chondrocytes, have recently demonstrated tremendous clinical potential for regeneration of hyaline-like cartilage tissue and treatment of chondral lesions. As such a new approach emerges, new important questions arise. One of such questions is: what kinds of biomaterials can be used with chondrocytes to tissue-engineer articular cartilage? The success of chondrocyte transplantation and/or the quality of neocartilage formation strongly depend on the specific cell-carrier material. The present article reviews some of those biomaterials, which have been suggested to promote chondrogenesis and to have potentials for tissue engineering of articular cartilage. A new biomaterial, a chitosan-based polysaccharide hydrogel, is also introduced and discussed in terms of the biocompatibility with chondrocytes.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Białystok, Mickiewicza 2c, Białystok 15-222, Poland; E-Mail: kwin@ 123456umb.edu.pl
                Author notes
                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: esz@ 123456umb.edu.pl ; Tel.: +48-85-748-5893; Fax: +48-85-748-5616.
                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Mar Drugs
                Mar Drugs
                marinedrugs
                Marine Drugs
                MDPI
                1660-3397
                01 April 2015
                April 2015
                : 13
                : 4
                : 1819-1846
                marinedrugs-13-01819
                10.3390/md13041819
                4413189
                25837983
                © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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