6
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Role of biochemical markers in testicular cancer: diagnosis, staging, and surveillance

      review-article

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Testis cancer is one of the few solid organ malignancies for which reliable serum tumor markers are available to help guide disease management. Human chorionic gonadotropin, alpha fetoprotein, and lactate dehydrogenase play crucial roles in diagnosis, staging, prognosis, monitoring treatment response, and surveillance of seminomatous and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Herein we discuss the clinical applications of germ cell tumor markers, the limitations of these markers in the management of this disease, and additional serum molecules that have been identified with potential roles as novel germ cell tumor markers.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 45

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          International Germ Cell Consensus Classification: a prognostic factor-based staging system for metastatic germ cell cancers. International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group.

          Cisplatin-containing chemotherapy has dramatically improved the outlook for patients with metastatic germ cell tumors (GCT), and overall cure rates now exceed 80%. To make appropriate risk-based decisions about therapy and to facilitate collaborative trials, a simple prognostic factor-based staging classification is required. Collaborative groups from 10 countries provided clinical data on patients with metastatic GCT treated with cisplatin-containing chemotherapy. Multivariate analyses of prognostic factors for progression and survival were performed and models were validated on an independent data set. Data were available on 5,202 patients with nonseminomatous GCT (NSGCT) and 660 patients with seminoma. Median follow-up time was 5 years. For NSGCT the following independent adverse factors were identified: mediastinal primary site; degree of elevation of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH); and presence of nonpulmonary visceral metastases (NPVM), such as liver, bone, and brain. For seminoma, the predominant adverse feature was the presence of NPVM. Integration of these factors produced the following groupings: good prognosis, comprising 60% of GCT with a 91% (89% to 93%) 5-year survival rate; intermediate prognosis, comprising 26% of GCT with a 79% (75% to 83%) 5-year survival rate; and poor prognosis, comprising 14% of GCT (all with NSGCT) with a 48% (42% to 54%) 5-year survival rate. An easily applicable, clinically based, prognostic classification for GCT has been agreed on between all the major clinical trial groups who are presently active worldwide. This should be used in clinical practice and in the design and reporting of clinical trials to aid international collaboration and understanding.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Analysis of circulating tumor DNA in plasma at diagnosis and during follow-up of lung cancer patients.

            We evaluated whether the amount of circulating DNA in plasma could discriminate between lung cancer patients and healthy individuals and whether it is related to disease progression, and we analyzed the kinetics of plasma DNA in disease-free, surgically resected patients. Plasma DNA quantification and analysis of microsatellite alterations were performed in a consecutive series of 84 patients with non-small cell lung cancer, who were studied during follow-up, and 43 healthy controls. In patients, the mean values of plasma DNA concentration were higher than in controls even considering stage Ia patients. Sensitivity and specificity estimates were calculated as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) curve and showed a value of 0.844. Variations in DNA level and in microsatellite changes correlated with the clinical status of 38 patients monitored during follow-up. The data suggest that quantification and molecular characterization of plasma DNA in lung cancer patients are valuable noninvasive diagnostic tools for discriminating patients from unaffected individuals and for detecting early recurrence during follow-up.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline on uses of serum tumor markers in adult males with germ cell tumors.

              To provide recommendations on appropriate uses for serum markers of germ cell tumors (GCTs). Searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE identified relevant studies published in English. Primary outcomes included marker accuracy to predict the impact of decisions on outcomes. Secondary outcomes included proportions of patients with elevated markers and statistical tests of elevations as prognostic factors. An expert panel developed consensus guidelines based on data from 82 reports. No studies directly compared outcomes of decisions with versus without marker assays. The search identified few prospective studies and no randomized controlled trials; most were retrospective series. Lacking data on primary outcomes, most Panel recommendations are based on secondary outcomes (relapse rates and time to relapse). The Panel recommended against using markers to screen for GCTs, to decide whether orchiectomy is indicated, or to select treatment for patients with cancer of unknown primary. To stage patients with testicular nonseminomas, the Panel recommended measuring three markers (alpha-fetoprotein [AFP], human chorionic gonadotropin [hCG], and lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]) before and after orchiectomy and before chemotherapy for those with extragonadal nonseminomas. They also recommended measuring AFP and hCG shortly before retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and at the start of each chemotherapy cycle for nonseminoma, and periodically to monitor for relapse. The Panel recommended measuring postorchiectomy hCG and LDH for patients with seminoma and preorchiectomy elevations. They recommended against using markers to guide or monitor treatment for seminoma or to detect relapse in those treated for stage I. However, they recommended measuring hCG and AFP to monitor for relapse in patients treated for advanced seminoma.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Open Access J Urol
                Open Access J Urol
                Open Access Journal of Urology
                Dove Medical Press
                1179-1551
                2012
                30 December 2011
                : 4
                : 1-8
                Affiliations
                Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jeffrey S Montgomery 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA, Tel +1 (734) 763 9269, Fax +1 (734) 936 9127, Email montrose@ 123456umich.edu
                Article
                oaju-4-001
                10.2147/OAJU.S15063
                3818947
                3bd79821-ccbe-4ef3-b77e-66471598402c
                © 2012 Milose et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review

                testicular cancer, tumor markers, bhcg, afp, surveillance, diagnosis

                Comments

                Comment on this article