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      COMADRE: a global data base of animal demography

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          Summary

          1. The open‐data scientific philosophy is being widely adopted and proving to promote considerable progress in ecology and evolution. Open‐data global data bases now exist on animal migration, species distribution, conservation status, etc. However, a gap exists for data on population dynamics spanning the rich diversity of the animal kingdom world‐wide. This information is fundamental to our understanding of the conditions that have shaped variation in animal life histories and their relationships with the environment, as well as the determinants of invasion and extinction.

          2. Matrix population models ( MPMs) are among the most widely used demographic tools by animal ecologists. MPMs project population dynamics based on the reproduction, survival and development of individuals in a population over their life cycle. The outputs from MPMs have direct biological interpretations, facilitating comparisons among animal species as different as Caenorhabditis elegans, Loxodonta africana and Homo sapiens.

          3. Thousands of animal demographic records exist in the form of MPMs, but they are dispersed throughout the literature, rendering comparative analyses difficult. Here, we introduce the COMADRE Animal Matrix Database, an open‐data online repository, which in its version 1.0.0 contains data on 345 species world‐wide, from 402 studies with a total of 1625 population projection matrices. COMADRE also contains ancillary information (e.g. ecoregion, taxonomy, biogeography, etc.) that facilitates interpretation of the numerous demographic metrics that can be derived from its MPMs. We provide R code to some of these examples.

          4. Synthesis: We introduce the COMADRE Animal Matrix Database, a resource for animal demography. Its open‐data nature, together with its ancillary information, will facilitate comparative analysis, as will the growing availability of databases focusing on other aspects of the rich animal diversity, and tools to query and combine them. Through future frequent updates of COMADRE, and its integration with other online resources, we encourage animal ecologists to tackle global ecological and evolutionary questions with unprecedented sample size.

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          The delayed rise of present-day mammals.

          Did the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event, by eliminating non-avian dinosaurs and most of the existing fauna, trigger the evolutionary radiation of present-day mammals? Here we construct, date and analyse a species-level phylogeny of nearly all extant Mammalia to bring a new perspective to this question. Our analyses of how extant lineages accumulated through time show that net per-lineage diversification rates barely changed across the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. Instead, these rates spiked significantly with the origins of the currently recognized placental superorders and orders approximately 93 million years ago, before falling and remaining low until accelerating again throughout the Eocene and Oligocene epochs. Our results show that the phylogenetic 'fuses' leading to the explosion of extant placental orders are not only very much longer than suspected previously, but also challenge the hypothesis that the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event had a major, direct influence on the diversification of today's mammals.
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            PanTHERIA: a species-level database of life history, ecology, and geography of extant and recently extinct mammals

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              Tree of Life Reveals Clock-Like Speciation and Diversification

              Genomic data are rapidly resolving the tree of living species calibrated to time, the timetree of life, which will provide a framework for research in diverse fields of science. Previous analyses of taxonomically restricted timetrees have found a decline in the rate of diversification in many groups of organisms, often attributed to ecological interactions among species. Here, we have synthesized a global timetree of life from 2,274 studies representing 50,632 species and examined the pattern and rate of diversification as well as the timing of speciation. We found that species diversity has been mostly expanding overall and in many smaller groups of species, and that the rate of diversification in eukaryotes has been mostly constant. We also identified, and avoided, potential biases that may have influenced previous analyses of diversification including low levels of taxon sampling, small clade size, and the inclusion of stem branches in clade analyses. We found consistency in time-to-speciation among plants and animals, ∼2 My, as measured by intervals of crown and stem species times. Together, this clock-like change at different levels suggests that speciation and diversification are processes dominated by random events and that adaptive change is largely a separate process.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Anim Ecol
                J Anim Ecol
                10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2656
                JANE
                The Journal of Animal Ecology
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                0021-8790
                1365-2656
                27 January 2016
                March 2016
                : 85
                : 2 , British Ecological Society Special Feature: Demography Beyond the Population ( doiID: 10.1111/jane.2016.85.issue-2 )
                : 371-384
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Laboratory of Evolutionary Biodemography LaboratoryMax Planck Institute for Demographic Research Konrad‐Zuse‐Straße 1 Rostock DE‐18057Germany
                [ 2 ] ARC Centre of Excellence for Environmental Decisions School of Biological SciencesThe University of Queensland Goddard building #8 St. Lucia Qld 4072Australia
                [ 3 ] Max‐Planck Odense Center on the Biodemography of AgingUniversity of Southern Denmark OdenseDenmark
                [ 4 ] Department of BiologyUniversity of Southern Denmark OdenseDenmark
                [ 5 ] MaxNetAging SchoolMax Planck Institute for Demographic Research Konrad‐Zuse‐Straße 1 DE‐18057 RostockGermany
                [ 6 ] Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture Department of EntomologyUniversity of Maryland College Park MD 20742USA
                [ 7 ] School of Natural SciencesZoology & Trinity Centre for Biodiversity Research Trinity College Dublin Dublin 2Ireland
                [ 8 ]National Socio‐Environmental Synthesis Center 1 Park Place Annapolis MD 21401USA
                [ 9 ] Centre for Ecology and ConservationCollege of Life and Environmental Sciences University of Exeter Cornwall Campus Exeter TR10 9FEUK
                [ 10 ] Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem DynamicsUniversity of Amsterdam 1090 GE AmsterdamThe Netherlands
                [ 11 ] Biology Department MS‐34Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Woods Hole MA 02543‐1050USA
                [ 12 ]Population Research Institute Duke University Durham NC 27708‐0309USA
                Author notes
                [*] [* ]Correspondence author. E‐mail: salguero@ 123456demogr.mpg.de
                [†]

                Equal contribution.

                [‡]

                Joint senior authors.

                Article
                JANE12482
                10.1111/1365-2656.12482
                4819704
                26814420
                3bdd2073-8863-4c6f-b33f-eaea83fbcc3f
                © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Pages: 14
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Australian Research Council
                Award ID: DE140100505
                Funded by: Evolutionary Demography Laboratory at the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research (MPIDR)
                Funded by: Natural Environmental Research Council
                Award ID: NE/N006798/1
                Categories
                Review
                Review
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                jane12482
                March 2016
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:4.8.5 mode:remove_FC converted:30.03.2016

                Ecology
                animal population ecology,comparative approach,matrix population model,open‐data,population growth rate (λ)

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