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      Expression in Mouse Kidney of Membrane Copper Transporters Atp7a and Atp7b

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      Nephron

      S. Karger AG

      Copper, Wilson disease, Menkes disease, Tubular dysfunction

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          Abstract

          Copper is essential for activity of many enzymes, but is toxic in excess. Several copper proteins are required for copper homeostasis. ATP7A and ATP7B are genes encoding membrane copper transporters. ATP7A, defective in Menkes disease (MNK), is expressed in many tissues involved primarily in copper uptake from dietary sources. ATP7B, defective in Wilson disease (WND), is essential for copper excretion. Although MNK patients have a copper deficiency in most tissues, copper accumulates in proximal tubules in the kidney. WND patients also have copper accumulation in the proximal tubules. In some WND patients this copper accumulation may result in tubular dysfunction, resulting in the increased excretion of low molecular weight substances (e.g. amino acids and calcium). In mouse, we have demonstrated, by in situ hybridization, the expression pattern in the kidney of mouse orthologues, Atp7a and Atp7b, and have confirmed Atp7b expression by immunohistochemistry. Both Atp7a and Atp7b are expressed in glomeruli; however, Atp7b is also seen in the kidney medulla. This suggests that glomeruli are responsible for regulating copper levels in the filtrate. In WND patients, urinary copper levels are extremely high suggesting Atp7b in the loops of Henle may have a role in copper reabsorption.

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          The copper transporter CTR1 provides an essential function in mammalian embryonic development.

          Copper serves as an essential cofactor for a variety of proteins in all living organisms. Previously, we described a human gene (CTR1;SLC31A1) that encodes a high-affinity copper-uptake protein and hypothesized that this protein is required for copper delivery to mammalian cells. Here, we test this hypothesis by inactivating the Ctr1 gene in mice by targeted mutagenesis. We observe early embryonic lethality in homozygous mutant embryos and a deficiency in copper uptake in the brains of heterozygous animals. Ctr1(-/-) embryos can be recovered at E8.5 but are severely developmentally retarded and morphologically abnormal. Histological analysis reveals discontinuities and variable thickness in the basement membrane of the embryonic region and an imperfect Reichert's membrane, features that are likely due to lack of activity in the collagen cross-linking cupro-enzyme lysyl oxidase. A collapsed embryonic cavity, the absence of an allantois, retarded mesodermal migration, and increased cell death are also apparent. In the brains of heterozygous adult mice, which at 16 months are phenotypically normal, copper is reduced to approximately half compared with control littermates, implicating CTR1 as the required port for copper entry into at least this organ. A study of the spatial and temporal expression pattern of Ctr1 during mouse development and adulthood further shows that CTR1 is ubiquitously transcribed with highest expression observed in the specialized epithelia of the choroid plexus and renal tubules and in connective tissues of the eye, ovary, and testes. We conclude that CTR1 is the primary avenue for copper uptake in mammalian cells.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            NEF
            Nephron
            10.1159/issn.1660-8151
            Nephron
            S. Karger AG
            1660-8151
            2235-3186
            2002
            September 2002
            26 September 2002
            : 92
            : 3
            : 629-634
            Affiliations
            University of Alberta, Department of Medical Genetics, Edmonton, Alta., Canada
            Article
            64075 Nephron 2002;92:629–634
            10.1159/000064075
            12372948
            © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

            Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

            Page count
            Figures: 4, References: 22, Pages: 6
            Product
            Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/64075
            Categories
            Original Paper

            Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

            Tubular dysfunction, Menkes disease, Wilson disease, Copper

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