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      What aspects of historical understanding feature in the analysis of moving-image sources in the history classroom?

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          Abstract

          This paper reflects on aspects of historical understanding developed in a classroom in which moving-image sources are analysed. Considered as non-fictional representations of the past, moving-image sources comprised broadcast images of historical events on newsreels, news broadcasts and documentaries. The study, carried out in a Maltese state secondary school, involved students (aged 15/16 years) analysing moving images as historical sources in their history lessons. Various aspects of understanding were identified: making connections with media content; using knowledge of one topic to shape another; discussing forms of historical knowledge in relation to each other; connecting with the wider historical picture; and constructing meaning using various language strategies. It is argued that these aspects offer a characterization of historical understanding when analysing broadcast footage of historical events in a constructivist classroom. It is suggested that underlying these aspects was students’ prior historical knowledge. I highlight the importance of maximizing on opportunities provided by moving-image sources to support understanding, particularly the co-construction of knowledge.

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          Integration of auditory and visual information about objects in superior temporal sulcus.

          Two categories of objects in the environment-animals and man-made manipulable objects (tools)-are easily recognized by either their auditory or visual features. Although these features differ across modalities, the brain integrates them into a coherent percept. In three separate fMRI experiments, posterior superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal gyrus (pSTS/MTG) fulfilled objective criteria for an integration site. pSTS/MTG showed signal increases in response to either auditory or visual stimuli and responded more to auditory or visual objects than to meaningless (but complex) control stimuli. pSTS/MTG showed an enhanced response when auditory and visual object features were presented together, relative to presentation in a single modality. Finally, pSTS/MTG responded more to object identification than to other components of the behavioral task. We suggest that pSTS/MTG is specialized for integrating different types of information both within modalities (e.g., visual form, visual motion) and across modalities (auditory and visual).
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            Quantifying Qualitative Analyses of Verbal Data: A Practical Guide

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              The gap between educational research and practice: views of teachers, school leaders, intermediaries and researchers

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                herj
                herj
                History Education Research Journal
                HERJ
                UCL Press (UK )
                2631-9713
                20 October 2020
                : 17
                : 2
                : 195-213
                Affiliations
                University of Malta, Malta
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Email: alex.cutajar@ 123456um.edu.mt
                Article
                10.14324/HERJ.17.2.05
                Copyright © 2020 Cutajar

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence (CC BY) 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, References: 70, Pages: 20
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                History Education Research Journal
                Volume 17, Issue 2

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