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      Contribution of Discretionary Foods and Drinks to Australian Children’s Intake of Energy, Saturated Fat, Added Sugars and Salt

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          Abstract

          Interventions are required to reduce children’s consumption of discretionary foods and drinks. To intervene we need to identify appropriate discretionary choice targets. This study aimed to determine the main discretionary choice contributors to energy and key nutrient intakes in children aged 2–18 years. Secondary analyses were performed with population weighted, single 24 h dietary recall data from the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Cakes, muffins, and slices; sweet biscuits; potato crisps and similar snacks; and, processed meats and sugar-sweetened drinks were relatively commonly consumed and were within the top three to five contributors to per capita energy, saturated fat, sodium, and/or added sugars. Per consumer intake identified cereal-based takeaway foods; cakes, muffins and slices; meat pies and other savoury pastries; and, processed meats as top contributors to energy, saturated fat, and sodium across most age groups. Subgroups of sugar-sweetened drinks and cakes, muffins and slices were consistently key contributors to added sugars intake. This study identified optimal targets for interventions to reduce discretionary choices intake, likely to have the biggest impact on moderating energy intake while also reducing intakes of saturated fat, sodium and/or added sugars.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Consistent dietary patterns identified from childhood to adulthood: the cardiovascular risk in Young Finns Study.

          Dietary patterns are useful in nutritional epidemiology, providing a comprehensive alternative to the traditional approach based on single nutrients. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study is a prospective cohort study with a 21-year follow-up. At baseline, detailed quantitative information on subjects' food consumption was obtained using a 48 h dietary recall method (n 1768, aged 3-18 years). The interviews were repeated after 6 and 21 years (n 1200 and n 1037, respectively). We conducted a principal component analysis to identify major dietary patterns at each study point. A set of two similar patterns was recognised throughout the study. Pattern 1 was positively correlated with consumption of traditional Finnish foods, such as rye, potatoes, milk, butter, sausages and coffee, and negatively correlated with fruit, berries and dairy products other than milk. Pattern 1 type of diet was more common among male subjects, smokers and those living in rural areas. Pattern 2, predominant among female subjects, non-smokers and in urban areas, was characterised by more health-conscious food choices such as vegetables, legumes and nuts, tea, rye, cheese and other dairy products, and also by consumption of alcoholic beverages. Tracking of the pattern scores was observed, particularly among subjects who were adolescents at baseline. Of those originally belonging to the uppermost quintile of pattern 1 and 2 scores, 41 and 38 % respectively, persisted in the same quintile 21 years later. Our results suggest that food behaviour and concrete food choices are established already in childhood or adolescence and may significantly track into adulthood.
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            Discretionary Foods Have a High Contribution and Fruit, Vegetables, and Legumes Have a Low Contribution to the Total Energy Intake of the Mexican Population.

            Overweight and obesity prevalences in Mexico are among the highest in the world, with dietary factors being the third-leading category of risk contributing to the burden of disease. Consequently, studying the compliance of the Mexican population to food-based dietary recommendations is essential for informing nutritional policies.
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              Report of the Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity

              (2016)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Children (Basel)
                Children (Basel)
                children
                Children
                MDPI
                2227-9067
                01 December 2017
                December 2017
                : 4
                : 12
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia; brittany.johnson@ 123456mymail.unisa.edu.au (B.J.J.); lucy.bell@ 123456.unisa.edu.au (L.K.B.); dorota.zarnowiecki@ 123456.unisa.edu.au (D.Z.)
                [2 ]Centre for Research Excellence in Early Prevention of Obesity in Childhood, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
                [3 ]School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia; anna.rangan@ 123456sydney.edu.au
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: rebecca.golley@ 123456unisa.edu.au ; Tel.: +61-8-8302-2507
                Article
                children-04-00104
                10.3390/children4120104
                5742749
                29194425
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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