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      Concentration levels of selected essential and toxic metals in potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) of West Gojjam, Amhara Region, Ethiopia

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          Abstract

          Potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most widely used as a staple food crop for human diets. It is an excellent source of minerals. In this study, contents of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cd and Pb in potato cultivars cultivated in Yilmana Densa, and Mecha districts of the West Gojjam zone, Ethiopia were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A 0.50 g oven-dried potato sample was digested using a mixture of 10 mL HNO 3:HClO 4 (4:1 v/v) at 120 °C for 3 h. The concentration ranges in dry weight basis in decreasing order were: Mg (420–438 mg/kg) > Ca (176–254 mg/kg) > Fe (27.3–90.4 mg/kg) > Zn (20.6–77.7 mg/kg) > (2.00–17.4 mg/kg) for Pb. The toxic heavy metal Cd was below the limit of detection in all the analyzed samples (<0.1 mg/kg). The Mg found in highest contents while Fe was the most abundant microelement. The Cd was found below the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of WHO/FAO and European Commission (EC) while Pb was above the limit. A wide range of variations was observed in the metal contents of potato cultivars collected from the two districts. Potato cultivars grown in West Gojam zone of Ethiopian could contribute a substantial amount of Fe and Zn together with the major elements, Ca and Mg to the individual’s daily dietary needs if consumed on a regular basis.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Nutrients, bioactive non-nutrients and anti-nutrients in potatoes

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            Assessing potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals in selected vegetables and food crops.

            Heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, lead, chromium and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. Their presence in the atmosphere, soil and water, even in traces can cause serious problems to all organisms, and heavy metal bioaccumulation in the food chain especially can be highly dangerous to human health. Heavy metals enter the human body mainly through two routes namely: inhalation and ingestion, ingestion being the main route of exposure to these elements in human population. Heavy metals intake by human populations through food chain has been reported in many countries. Soil threshold for heavy metal toxicity is an important factor affecting soil environmental capacity of heavy metal and determines heavy metal cumulative loading limits. For soil-plant system, heavy metal toxicity threshold is the highest permissible content in the soil (total or bioavailable concentration) that does not pose any phytotoxic effects or heavy metals in the edible parts of the crops does not exceed food hygiene standards. Factors affecting the thresholds of dietary toxicity of heavy metal in soil-crop system include: soil type which includes soil pH, organic matter content, clay mineral and other soil chemical and biochemical properties; and crop species or cultivars regulated by genetic basis for heavy metal transport and accumulation in plants. In addition, the interactions of soil-plant root-microbes play important roles in regulating heavy metal movement from soil to the edible parts of crops. Agronomic practices such as fertilizer and water managements as well as crop rotation system can affect bioavailability and crop accumulation of heavy metals, thus influencing the thresholds for assessing dietary toxicity of heavy metals in the food chain. This paper reviews the phytotoxic effects and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vegetables and food crops and assesses soil heavy metal thresholds for potential dietary toxicity.
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              Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                berhetadesse@gmail.com
                atminale2004@yahoo.com
                +251-34-840-03-83 , kebe76@hotmail.com
                Journal
                Springerplus
                Springerplus
                SpringerPlus
                Springer International Publishing (Cham )
                2193-1801
                17 September 2015
                17 September 2015
                2015
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [ ]Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Bahir Dar University, P. O. Box 079, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
                [ ]Department of Chemistry, College of Natural and Computational Science, Mekelle University, P. O. Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia
                Article
                1301
                10.1186/s40064-015-1301-3
                4573964
                © Tadesse et al. 2015

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

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                Research
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                © The Author(s) 2015

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                potato, solanum tuberosum l., flame atomic absorption spectrometry, mineral, ethiopia

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