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      Efficacy of Multidrug Therapy Combined with Mizoribine in Children with Diffuse IgA Nephropathy in Comparison with Multidrug Therapy without Mizoribine and with Methylprednisolone Pulse Therapy

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          Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of prednisolone, warfarin, and dipyridamole therapy combined with mizoribine (PWDM) in the treatment of diffuse immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy in comparison with prednisolone, warfarin, and dipyridamole therapy without mizoribine (PWD) and with methylprednisolone pulse therapy (PWD pulse). Methods: We collected data on 61 patients diagnosed with diffuse IgA nephropathy, and these patients were retrospectively divided into three groups without randomization. Group A included 21 patients before 1987 who were treated with PWD for 24 months, group B included 20 patients from 1987 to 1989 who were treated with PWD pulse therapy for 24 months, and group C included 20 patients after 1990 who were treated with PWDM for 24 months. Clinical features and pathological findings in each group were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The time from initiation of therapy in group A, group B, and group C was 8.9 ± 5.2, 8.1 ± 3.9, and 7.7 ± 3.8 years, respectively. At the latest follow-up examination, the mean urinary protein excretion (mg/m<sup>2</sup>/h) was 17 ± 10 in group A, 22 ± 20 in group B, and 6 ± 6 in group C and had decreased significantly in group C as compared with the other groups. The activity index in all three groups was lower at the second biopsy than that at the first biopsy (5.1 ± 0.8 vs. 6.5 ± 2.1 in group A, p < 0.05; 5.6 ± 0.9 vs. 6.6 ± 1.7 in group B, p < 0.01, and 4.5 ± 1.0 vs. 6.8 ± 1.9 in group C, p < 0.01). The chronicity index in groups A and B at second biopsy was higher than at first biopsy (7.3 ± 1.4 vs. 4.8 ± 1.0 in group A, p < 0.01, and 8.1 ± 2.0 vs. 5.3 ± 0.9 in group B, p < 0.01), but was unchanged in group C. At the latest follow-up examination, 1 patient (4.8%) in group A, 3 patients (15%) in group B, and none (0%) in group C had renal insufficiency. Conclusion: These results suggest that PWDM appears to be more effective than PWD or PWD pulse in ameliorating proteinuria and histological severity of patients with IgA nephropathy.

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          Most cited references 11

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          A multicenter trial of mizoribine compared with placebo in children with frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome.

          The use of corticosteroids or cytotoxic/immunosuppressive agents such as cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil, and cyclosporine for the treatment of frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (FRNS) is limited because of their adverse effects. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of mizoribine, a relatively new immunosuppressive drug developed in Japan, in children with FRNS. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial was carried out in children, from 2 to 19 years old, with FRNS. At relapse, patients were treated with prednisolone. According to a dynamic allocation, mizoribine or a placebo was concurrently administered to each patient. Prednisolone was gradually tapered and discontinued within 12 weeks. The test drug was maintained for 48 weeks. The primary end point was the relapse rate (the total number of relapses/the total treatment days for all patients). Analyses were performed according to the intention-to-treat principle. The primary analysis was conducted on 99 mizoribine- and 98 placebo-treated patients. The relapse rate was lower in the mizoribine group than in the placebo group (0.0055 vs. 0.0067; ratio 0.81, 95% CI, 0.61 to 1.05, P = 0.12). The hazard ratio of the cumulative remission rate between the two groups was 0.79 (95% CI, 0. 57 to 1.08). In the subgroups consisting of patients 10 years old or younger, the relapse rate ratio between the mizoribine subgroup (54 patients) and the placebo subgroup (57 patients) was 0.66 (95% CI, 0. 44 to 0.94, P = 0.017). The hazard ratio of the cumulative remission rate between the two subgroups was 0.56 (95% CI, 0.37 to 0.85, P = 0. 007). Hyperuricemia was the most common adverse event with mizoribine (16%), but was transient. Compared with the placebo, mizoribine significantly decreased the relapse rate and prolonged the remission period in the subgroup consisting of patients 10 years old or younger. This drug may be useful in young children with FRNS who generally relapse more frequently than older children.
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            Treatment of severe IgA nephropathy in children.

            We treated ten children with severe IgA nephropathy (IgAN) [proteinuria greater than 1 g/day, hypertension, renal insufficiency, segmental sclerosis, crescent formation and/or glomerular basement membrane (GBM) deposition of IgA] with prednisone and azathioprine for 1 year. Following the year of therapy, seven of the ten children underwent a repeat kidney biopsy. All biopsies were scored for activity (percentage of glomeruli demonstrating crescent formation, degree of mesangial proliferation and interstitial infiltrate; maximum score = 9) and chronicity (percentage of glomeruli demonstrating fibrous crescents, segmental sclerosis, global sclerosis, and degree of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis; maximum score = 12). After 1 year of therapy, the protein excretion of all the children decreased significantly (P less than 0.01) from 4,052 +/- 3,190 mg/day to 1,692 +/- 1,634 mg/day. The activity score decreased significantly (P less than 0.01) from 4.35 +/- 0.94 prior to therapy to 2.28 +/- 0.75 after therapy while the chronicity score was unchanged (5.42 +/- 1.7 vs 5.85 +/- 2.0). The percentage of glomeruli demonstrating cellular crescents decreased (P less than 0.05) from 21.2 +/- 21.7% prior to therapy to 0.94 +/- 2.4% after therapy. Mesangial deposition of IgA persisted but GBM deposition of IgA was less prominent after therapy. During the follow-up period (mean 2.6 years, range 9 months-7.5 years), one child required brief retreatment for biopsy-confirmed recurrence of active disease, two children have developed renal insufficiency due to progressive scarring in the absence of inflammation, while the remaining seven are stable. We suggest that treatment with prednisone and azathioprine may be beneficial in children with severe IgAN and that a controlled clinical trial is warranted.
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              A highly differentiated ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system in a Characidae fish, Triportheus guentheri


                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                December 2004
                28 February 2005
                : 24
                : 6
                : 576-581
                Department of Pediatrics, Fukushima University School of Medicine, Fukushima, Japan
                82202 Am J Nephrol 2004;24:576–581
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 5, References: 28, Pages: 6
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/82202
                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation


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