Adrenomedullin (AM) is a hypotensive peptide that has recently been isolated from human pheochromocytoma. In this study, we measured plasma AM concentrations in 54 patients on hemodialysis (HD) and examined the clinical significance. We also evaluated the effects of high-flux and low-flux dialysis membranes on plasma AM levels. The average value of plasma AM at pre-HD (4.44 ± 0.16 fmol/ml) was significantly elevated compared with that in 44 healthy volunteers (1.31 ± 1.41 fmol/ml) (p < 0.0001). The plasma AM concentrations at pre-HD showed a negative correlation with age and mean blood pressure (MBP) at pre-HD. The plasma AM concentrations at post-HD showed a negative correlation with MBP at post-HD and a negative correlation with the reduction rate of AM. Multiple regression analysis showed that age and MBP were independent factors associated with plasma AM at pre-HD and that MBP and reduction rate of AM were independent factors associated with plasma AM at post-HD. We investigated the differences between high-flux dialyzers (PS-UW, PS-N and FB-F) and a low-flux dialyzer (AM-BC-F), and we found that high-flux dialyzers removed plasma AM more efficiently than a low-flux dialyzer did. In addition, in 3 patients on HD, plasma AM levels decreased significantly during isovolumic dialysis using a high-flux dialyzer, despite the fact that there were no significant changes in MBP and ANP. In conclusion, elevation in plasma AM level causes a fall in MBP in patients on HD, therefore, removal of AM by HD treatment using a high-flux dialyzer contributes to the stability of blood pressure during HD.