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      Predialytic versus Intradialytic Nutrition: A Study to Assess Effects on Intradialytic Blood Pressure, Dialysis Adequacy, and Urea Removal


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          Background: Provision of oral protein in hemodialysis (HD) is desirable due to improved compliance to protein requirements and better nutritional status, but the risks of hypotension and underdialysis need to be considered. This study compared 2 different timings for administering oral nutritional supplements (ONS), predialysis and mid-dialysis, with respect to hemodynamics, dialysis adequacy, urea removal, and tolerability. Methods: This single-center, prospective crossover study analyzed 72 stable patients with ESRD on twice a week maintenance HD with a mean age of 38.7 (±11.2) years and a dialysis vintage of 28.2 (±13.1) months. In the first week, all the patients received ONS (450 kcal energy, 20 g protein) 1 h prior to start of dialysis (group 1) and in the next week, the supplement was administered after 2 h of start of dialysis (group 2), with a predialysis fasting period of at least 3 h in both groups. Blood pressures, serum, and spent dialysate samples were collected and nausea occurrence was noted by severity. Results: Predialytic intake (group 1) was associated with higher predialysis and 1st hour blood urea, dialysis adequacy, and urea removal than group 2. Both groups achieved mean Kt/V > 1.2, and the occurrence of symptomatic hypotensive episodes and nausea was not significantly different between the groups. On repeated measures ANOVA, changes in blood urea over time showed significant group effect. Conclusions: Predialytic supplementation was associated with better dialysis adequacy and urea removal than intradialytic supplementation. However, both timings were equally tolerated and not associated with underdialysis.

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          The effects of oral nutritional supplements in patients with maintenance dialysis therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials

          Background/objective This systematic review aims to determine the potential effects of oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients receiving maintenance dialysis therapy (MDT). Methods Electronic databases were searched without language limits through to July 2018. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that involved comparisons of ONS versus placebo or routine care are included in this meta-analysis. RevMan 5.3 statistical software was used for meta-analysis. Results 15 articles with 589 subjects were included in our study. There are insufficient comparable data of randomized trials to allow meta-analysis of mortality. Albumin levels may be improved by the macronutrient blends or protein/amino acid supplements in MDT patients. Compared with the control group, serum albumin levels and BMI in the ONS group were increased by 1.58 g/L (95% CI, 0.52–2.63, P = 0.003; I2 = 85%) and 0.40 kg/m2 (95% CI, 0.10–0.71, P = 0.01; I2 = 49%), respectively. In the subgroup analysis of patients receiving hemodialysis, albumin levels in ONS group were increased by 2.17 g/L (95% CI, 0.89–3.45, P<0.001; I2 = 90%). ONS may not influence serum phosphorus and potassium levels. Conclusions Very low-quality evidence suggests that Short-term oral energy or protein/amino acid supplements may improve nutritional status by increasing serum albumin levels and BMI in MDT patients, without influence on serum potassium levels. High-quality and large RCTs, particularly regarding the effects of ONS on mortality and quality of life, are needed to further validate our findings.
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            Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidative Nutrition in Hypoalbuminemic Dialysis Patients (AIONID) study: results of the pilot-feasibility, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

            Background Low serum albumin is common and associated with protein-energy wasting, inflammation, and poor outcomes in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. We hypothesized that in-center (in dialysis clinic) provision of high-protein oral nutrition supplements (ONS) tailored for MHD patients combined with anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatory ingredients with or without an anti-inflammatory appetite stimulator (pentoxifylline, PTX) is well tolerated and can improve serum albumin concentration. Methods Between January 2008 and June 2010, 84 adult hypoalbuminemic (albumin <4.0 g/dL) MHD outpatients were double-blindly randomized to receive 16 weeks of interventions including ONS, PTX, ONS with PTX, or placebos. Nutritional and inflammatory markers were compared between the four groups. Results Out of 84 subjects (mean ± SD; age, 59 ± 12 years; vintage, 34 ± 34 months), 32 % were Blacks, 54 % females, and 68 % diabetics. ONS, PTX, ONS plus PTX, and placebo were associated with an average change in serum albumin of +0.21 (P = 0.004), +0.14 (P = 0.008), +0.18 (P = 0.001), and +0.03 g/dL (P = 0.59), respectively. No related serious adverse events were observed. In a predetermined intention-to-treat regression analysis modeling post-trial serum albumin as a function of pre-trial albumin and the three different interventions (ref = placebo), only ONS without PTX was associated with a significant albumin rise (+0.17 ± 0.07 g/dL, P = 0.018). Conclusions In this pilot-feasibility, 2 × 2 factorial, placebo-controlled trial, daily intake of a CKD-specific high-protein ONS with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative ingredients for up to 16 weeks was well tolerated and associated with slight but significant increase in serum albumin levels. Larger long-term controlled trials to examine hard outcomes are indicated. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13539-013-0115-9) contains supplementary material.
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              Second generation logarithmic estimates of single-pool variable volume Kt/V: an analysis of error


                Author and article information

                Blood Purif
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                September 2021
                28 January 2021
                : 50
                : 6
                : 823-828
                [_a] aDepartment of Nephrology, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India
                [_b] bDepartment of Critical Care Medicine, Super Speciality Cancer Institute & Hospital, Lucknow, India
                [_c] cDepartment of Biochemistry, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India
                [_d] dDepartment of Biostatistics, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India
                [_e] eDepartment of Dietetics, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India
                Author notes
                *Abhilash Chandra, Department of Nephrology, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Institute of Medical Sciences, 4th Floor, OPD Block, Vibhuti Khand, Lucknow 226010 (India), acn393@gmail.com
                Author information
                512540 Blood Purif 2021;50:823–828
                © 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 15 July 2020
                : 23 October 2020
                Page count
                Tables: 4, Pages: 6
                Research Article

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Hypotension,Nutrition,Diet,Hemodialysis,Dialysis adequacy,Protein intake,Hemodynamics,Adequacy,Blood pressure


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