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      Cancer in an unexpected site post pouch surgery for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)

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          Highlights

          • Restorative proctocolectomy is the mainstay in the management of Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP).
          • Post-op surveillance is mainly to monitor for recurrence.
          • There are no clear guidelines to how frequent or for how long should the surveillance last.
          • The usual site of recurrence is usually at the Anal Transitional Zone (ATZ).
          • Cancer within the ileal pouch has been reported before.
          • Despite surveillance and follow up cancer can occur.

          Abstract

          Introduction

          Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) is a hereditary condition characterized by multiple colorectal adenomatous polyps. FAP is the most common adenomatous polyposis syndrome. Restorative proctocolectomy is the most commonly performed surgical procedure performed for patients suffering from FAP with different options for anastomosis, namely ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) or ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA). The occurrence of adenomas is a common finding during follow up and surveillance post surgery for these patients. Although there are a few cases of carcinoma that were namely at the anal transitional zone (ATZ), there are only a few cases of ileal pouch related adenocarcinoma reported. This work has been reported in line with the SCARE criteria (Agha et al., 2016) [ 1].

          Presentation of case

          We report a case of a 34-year-old man diagnosed with FAP who underwent proctocolectomy with IPAA, and subsequently referred to our center, who, despite appropriate measures and surveillance, developed adenocarcinoma in the ileal pouch.

          Discussion

          Restorative proctocolectomy for Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) is the mainstay of treatment. There are different surgical options, each with its own set of advantages and disadvantages. The most favored option is proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) due to because it involves resection of the rectum. Despite these interventions, adenomas and/or carcinomas have been reported on follow up post surgery.

          Conclusion

          Although the risk of developing adenomas or carcinomas in the ileal pouch post proctocolectomy with IPAA is low it should not be neglected as cancer occurrence or recurrence is unpredictable even with appropriate measures.

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          Most cited references 15

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          ACG clinical guideline: Genetic testing and management of hereditary gastrointestinal cancer syndromes.

          This guideline presents recommendations for the management of patients with hereditary gastrointestinal cancer syndromes. The initial assessment is the collection of a family history of cancers and premalignant gastrointestinal conditions and should provide enough information to develop a preliminary determination of the risk of a familial predisposition to cancer. Age at diagnosis and lineage (maternal and/or paternal) should be documented for all diagnoses, especially in first- and second-degree relatives. When indicated, genetic testing for a germline mutation should be done on the most informative candidate(s) identified through the family history evaluation and/or tumor analysis to confirm a diagnosis and allow for predictive testing of at-risk relatives. Genetic testing should be conducted in the context of pre- and post-test genetic counseling to ensure the patient's informed decision making. Patients who meet clinical criteria for a syndrome as well as those with identified pathogenic germline mutations should receive appropriate surveillance measures in order to minimize their overall risk of developing syndrome-specific cancers. This guideline specifically discusses genetic testing and management of Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis (AFAP), MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP), Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, juvenile polyposis syndrome, Cowden syndrome, serrated (hyperplastic) polyposis syndrome, hereditary pancreatic cancer, and hereditary gastric cancer.
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            Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP): frequency, penetrance, and mutation rate.

            The nationwide Danish polyposis register includes all known Danish cases of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and their relatives. By identifying all FAP patients born between 1920 and 1949, we found the frequency of the disease to be 1 in 13,528. By comparing the number of affected and nonaffected offspring born to affected parents during the same period we found the penetrance of the disease for inherited cases to be close to 100% at the age of 40 years. The mutation rate found by the direct method was 9 mutations per million gametes per generation and the proportion of new mutants was estimated to 25%. Fitness for patients between 15 and 29 years was found close to one, while for patients older than 30 the fitness was reduced, but increasing during the three decades (from 0.44 to 0.71) probably because treatment became more widespread and efficient. As we have used the overall fitness in the period, 0.87, to estimate the mutation rate by the indirect method, we found a lower value than by the direct method, namely 5 mutations per million gametes per generation.
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              Familial adenomatous polyposis: prevalence of adenomas in the ileal pouch after restorative proctocolectomy.

              To determine the prevalence of adenomas in ileal pouches from patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and to determine whether a correlation exists between the presence of pouch adenomas and duodenal adenomas and the site of the adenomatous polyposis coli gene mutation. Restorative proctocolectomy can markedly reduce the risk of colorectal adenocarcinoma in FAP patients. However, adenomas with the potential to progress to adenocarcinoma can develop in the duodenum, ileum, and continent ileostomy after restorative proctocolectomy. More recently, adenomas have been described in the ileal pouch after ileoanal anastomosis. Pouch endoscopy was offered to 167 patients with FAP who had undergone restorative proctocolectomy between January 1984 and December 1996. Adenomas were found in 35% of the 85 ileal pouches examined. No invasive carcinomas were noted. The risk of developing one or more adenomas at 5, 10, and 15 years was 7%, 35%, and 75%, respectively. Patients with adenomas were more likely to have duodenal and ampullary adenomas. No correlation was detected between adenoma development and the site of the adenomatous polyposis coli mutation. Adenomas are frequently found in the ileal pouch of patients after restorative proctocolectomy for FAP. Regular endoscopic surveillance of the pouch is recommended at a frequency similar to that of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Int J Surg Case Rep
                Int J Surg Case Rep
                International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
                Elsevier
                2210-2612
                28 December 2017
                2018
                28 December 2017
                : 42
                : 266-268
                Affiliations
                [a ]King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                [b ]Mayoclinic, Rochester, MN, United States
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. o.a.w.7@ 123456hotmail.com
                Article
                S2210-2612(17)30689-2
                10.1016/j.ijscr.2017.12.037
                5766745
                29324375
                © 2017 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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