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      Overexpression of FoxM1 optimizes the therapeutic effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on acute respiratory distress syndrome

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          Abstract

          Background

          Injury of alveolar epithelial cells and capillary endothelial cells is crucial in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising cell source for ALI/ARDS treatment. Overexpression of Fork head box protein M1 (FoxM1) facilitates MSC differentiation into alveolar type II (AT II) cells in vitro. Moreover, FoxM1 has been shown to repair the endothelial barrier. Therefore, this study explored whether overexpression of FoxM1 promotes the therapeutic effect of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) on ARDS by differentiation of BMSCs into AT II cells or a paracrine mechanism.

          Methods

          A septic ALI model was established in mice by intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide. The protective effect of BMSCs-FoxM1 on ALI was explored by detecting pathological variations in the lung, total protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), wet/dry (W/D) lung weight ratio, oxidative stress levels, cytokine levels, and retention of BMSCs in the lung. In addition, we assessed whether FoxM1 overexpression promoted the therapeutic effect of BMSCs on ALI/ARDS by differentiating into AT II cells using SPC −/− mice. Furthermore, the protective effect of BMSCs-FoxM1 on lipopolysaccharide-induced endothelial cell (EC) injury was explored by detecting EC proliferation, apoptosis, scratch wounds, tube formation, permeability, and oxidative stress, and analyzing whether the Wnt/β-catenin pathway contributes to the regulatory mechanism in vitro using a pathway inhibitor.

          Results

          Compared with BMSCs-Vector, treatment with BMSCs-FoxM1 significantly decreased the W/D lung weight ratio, total BALF protein level, lung injury score, oxidative stress, and cytokine levels. With the detected track of BMSCs-FoxM1, we observed a low residency rate and short duration of residency in the lung. Notably, SPC was not expressed in SPC −/− mice injected with BMSCs-FoxM1. Furthermore, BMSCs-FoxM1 enhanced EC proliferation, migration, and tube formation; inhibited EC apoptosis and inflammation; and maintained vascular integrity through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which was partially reversed by XAV-939.

          Conclusion

          Overexpression of FoxM1 enhanced the therapeutic effect of BMSCs on ARDS, possibly through a paracrine mechanism rather than by promoting BMSC differentiation into AT II cells in vivo, and prevented LPS-induced EC barrier disruption partially through activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in vitro.

          Supplementary Information

          The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s13287-023-03240-8.

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          Most cited references51

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          Endothelial cell migration during angiogenesis.

          Endothelial cell migration is essential to angiogenesis. This motile process is directionally regulated by chemotactic, haptotactic, and mechanotactic stimuli and further involves degradation of the extracellular matrix to enable progression of the migrating cells. It requires the activation of several signaling pathways that converge on cytoskeletal remodeling. Then, it follows a series of events in which the endothelial cells extend, contract, and throw their rear toward the front and progress forward. The aim of this review is to give an integrative view of the signaling mechanisms that govern endothelial cell migration in the context of angiogenesis.
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            Mesenchymal Stem Cell Migration and Tissue Repair

            Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multilineage cells with the ability to self-renew and differentiate into a variety of cell types, which play key roles in tissue healing and regenerative medicine. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are the most frequently used stem cells in cell therapy and tissue engineering. However, it is prerequisite for BMSCs to mobilize from bone marrow and migrate into injured tissues during the healing process, through peripheral circulation. The migration of BMSCs is regulated by mechanical and chemical factors in this trafficking process. In this paper, we review the effects of several main regulatory factors on BMSC migration and its underlying mechanism; discuss two critical roles of BMSCs—namely, directed differentiation and the paracrine function—in tissue repair; and provide insight into the relationship between BMSC migration and tissue repair, which may provide a better guide for clinical applications in tissue repair through the efficient regulation of BMSC migration.
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              Engineered Exosomes With Ischemic Myocardium‐Targeting Peptide for Targeted Therapy in Myocardial Infarction

              Background Exosomes are membranous vesicles generated by almost all cells. Recent studies demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cell–derived exosomes possessed many effects, including antiapoptosis, anti‐inflammatory effects, stimulation of angiogenesis, anticardiac remodeling, and recovery of cardiac function on cardiovascular diseases. However, targeting of exosomes to recipient cells precisely in vivo still remains a problem. Ligand fragments or homing peptides discovered by phage display and in vivo biopanning methods fused to the enriched molecules on the external part of exosomes have been exploited to improve the ability of exosomes to target specific tissues or organs carrying cognate receptors. Herein, we briefly elucidated how to improve targeting ability of exosomes to ischemic myocardium. Methods and Results We used technology of molecular cloning and lentivirus packaging to engineer exosomal enriched membrane protein (Lamp2b) fused with ischemic myocardium‐targeting peptide CSTSMLKAC (IMTP). In vitro results showed that IMTP‐exosomes could be internalized by hypoxia‐injured H9C2 cells more efficiently than blank‐exosomes. Compared with blank‐exosomes, IMTP‐exosomes were observed to be increasingly accumulated in ischemic heart area (P<0.05). Meanwhile, attenuated inflammation and apoptosis, reduced fibrosis, enhanced vasculogenesis, and cardiac function were detected by mesenchymal stem cell–derived IMTP‐exosome treatment in ischemic heart area. Conclusions Our research concludes that exosomes engineered by IMTP can specially target ischemic myocardium, and mesenchymal stem cell–derived IMTP‐exosomes exert enhanced therapeutic effects on acute myocardial infarction.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                zengmian@mail.sysu.edu.cn
                Journal
                Stem Cell Res Ther
                Stem Cell Res Ther
                Stem Cell Research & Therapy
                BioMed Central (London )
                1757-6512
                14 February 2023
                14 February 2023
                2023
                : 14
                : 27
                Affiliations
                GRID grid.12981.33, ISNI 0000 0001 2360 039X, Department of Medical Intensive Care Unit, The First Affiliated Hospital, , Sun Yat-Sen University, ; No.58 Zhongshan Road 2, Guangzhou, 510080 Guangdong China
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9179-902X
                Article
                3240
                10.1186/s13287-023-03240-8
                9926819
                36788588
                3c4af434-8162-4d29-9c33-a26423c1b1b9
                © The Author(s) 2023

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                History
                : 16 February 2022
                : 17 January 2023
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China;
                Award ID: 81670066
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2023

                Molecular medicine
                acute respiratory distress syndrome,foxm1,mesenchymal stem cells
                Molecular medicine
                acute respiratory distress syndrome, foxm1, mesenchymal stem cells

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