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      Health benefits of fruit and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combinations of phytochemicals.

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      The American journal of clinical nutrition
      Oxford University Press (OUP)

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          Abstract

          Cardiovascular disease and cancer are ranked as the first and second leading causes of death in the United States and in most industrialized countries. Regular consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of cancer, cardiovascular disease, stroke, Alzheimer disease, cataracts, and some of the functional declines associated with aging. Prevention is a more effective strategy than is treatment of chronic diseases. Functional foods that contain significant amounts of bioactive components may provide desirable health benefits beyond basic nutrition and play important roles in the prevention of chronic diseases. The key question is whether a purified phytochemical has the same health benefit as does the whole food or mixture of foods in which the phytochemical is present. Our group found, for example, that the vitamin C in apples with skin accounts for only 0.4% of the total antioxidant activity, suggesting that most of the antioxidant activity of fruit and vegetables may come from phenolics and flavonoids in apples. We propose that the additive and synergistic effects of phytochemicals in fruit and vegetables are responsible for their potent antioxidant and anticancer activities, and that the benefit of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables is attributed to the complex mixture of phytochemicals present in whole foods.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Am J Clin Nutr
          The American journal of clinical nutrition
          Oxford University Press (OUP)
          0002-9165
          0002-9165
          September 2003
          : 78
          : 3 Suppl
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Food Science and the Institute of Comparative and Environmental Toxicology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.
          Article
          10.1093/ajcn/78.3.517S
          12936943
          3c58f6c2-755e-4e8b-b8de-04e147e384a6

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