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      Effects of Diabetes Mellitus, Chronic Renal Failure and Hemodialysis on Serum and Salivary Antioxidant Status

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          Aim: To analyze various oxidative stress parameters in the saliva and serum of patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) and/or diabetes mellitus (DM), and to compare them in dialytic vs. pre-dialytic patients. Method: 50 consenting patients were divided into five subgroups of patients: severe CRF (dialytic) without DM, severe CRF (dialytic) with DM, mild CRF (pre-dialytic) without DM, mild CRF (pre-dialytic) with DM, and with DM but without CRF (controls). Uric acid (UA), peroxidase and total antioxidant status (TAS) were studied in both saliva and serum; superoxide dismutase (SOD) was evaluated only in saliva. Both saliva collection and serum harvesting were done simultaneously. Results: In severe-CRF patients without DM, median TAS, UA and SOD levels decreased following dialysis (54, 85, 48%, respectively), and peroxidase levels increased slightly (9%). In severe-CRF patients with DM, median TAS and SOD levels increased following dialysis (33 and 54%, respectively) while median UA and peroxidase levels decreased (68 and 10%, respectively). Conclusions: DM, CRF and hemodialysis were found to increase the oxidative stress burden in both serum and saliva. Therefore, antioxidant assessment may be used to monitor baseline oxidative status in these situations though larger randomized studies are in order.

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          Periodontal disease and NIDDM in Pima Indians.

          The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence and incidence of periodontal disease and its relationship with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Two thousand two hundred seventy-three Pima Indians (949 men, 1324 women) aged greater than or equal to 15 yr from the Gila River Indian Community in Arizona were examined between 1983 and 1989. Periodontal disease was diagnosed by tooth loss and by percentage of interproximal crestal alveolar bone loss ascertained from panoramic radiography. Subjects with little or no evidence of periodontal disease were classified as nondiseased. Thus, the incidence of advanced periodontal disease was determined. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of periodontal disease at first dental examination was 60% in subjects with NIDDM and 36% in those without. Twenty-two new cases developed in a subset of 701 subjects (272 men, 429 women) aged 15-54 yr who initially had little or no evidence of periodontal disease and had at least one additional dental examination. The incidence of periodontal disease in this group was similar in men and women (incidence-rate ratio 1.0, 95% confidence interval [Cl] 0.5-1.9, controlled for age and diabetes). Higher age predicted a greater incidence of periodontal disease (chi 2 = 30.6, df = 3, P less than 0.001, controlled for sex and diabetes). The rate of periodontal disease in subjects with diabetes was 2.6 times (95% Cl 1.0-6.6, controlled for age and sex) that observed in those without. Although periodontal disease was common in nondiabetic Pima Indians, in whom most of the incident cases occurred, diabetes clearly conferred a substantially increased risk. Thus, periodontal disease should be considered a nonspecific complication of NIDDM.
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            Periodontal disease is associated with lower antioxidant capacity in whole saliva and evidence of increased protein oxidation.

            The aim of this cohort study was to determine whether periodontitis and gingivitis are associated with impaired salivary antioxidant status and increased oxidative injury. One hundred and twenty-nine patients attending a routine dental check-up were recruited for the study. Periodontal disease status was characterized using the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN) system. Total salivary antioxidant capacity and salivary ascorbate, urate and albumin were determined in a sample of whole unstimulated saliva. Protein carbonyl concentrations were determined as an index of oxidative injury. Patients in the lowest tertile of CPITN score exhibited decreased salivary delivery of antioxidants and specifically urate than patients in the upper tertile. Poor periodontal health was associated with increased concentrations of protein carbonyls in saliva. Women had significantly lower total antioxidant status than men, regardless of periodontal health. Periodontal disease is associated with reduced salivary antioxidant status and increased oxidative damage within the oral cavity.
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              Spectrophotometric assay for superoxide dismutase based on tetrazolium salt 3'--1--(phenylamino)-carbonyl--3, 4-tetrazolium]-bis(4-methoxy-6-nitro)benzenesulfonic acid hydrate reduction by xanthine-xanthine oxidase.

              XTT (3'-{1-[(phenylamino)-carbonyl]-3, 4-tetrazolium}bis(4-methoxy-6-nitro)benzenesulfonic acid hydrate) was reduced to a water-soluble product with an absorbance maximum at about 470 nm by superoxide anion generated by xanthine-xanthine oxidase (XO). The rate of XTT reduction was linearly related to XO activity and the reduction was inhibited by superoxide dismutase (SOD). A perfect inhibition of the reduction of XTT by SOD was achieved, suggesting that XTT does not interact with XO. The present XTT-based assay had a higher sensitivity than a conventional nitroblue tetrazolium-based assay by a factor of 2.5 at pH 10.2. This method was applicable to the SOD assay in the pH range 8.0-10.2. Copyright 1997Academic Press

                Author and article information

                Nephron Clin Pract
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                February 2007
                29 December 2006
                : 105
                : 3
                : c114-c120
                aNephrology Department, bDiabetes Unit, and cOral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department and Oral Biochemistry Laboratory, Rambam Medical Center and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel
                98320 Nephron Clin Pract 2007;105:c114–c120
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, References: 52, Pages: 1
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/98320
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