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      American Society of Echocardiography Report : Clinical application of noninvasive vascular ultrasound in cardiovascular risk stratification: a report from the American Society of Echocardiography and the Society for Vascular Medicine and Biology

      1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6

      Vascular Medicine

      SAGE Publications

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          Carotid-artery intima and media thickness as a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in older adults. Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group.

          The combined thickness of the intima and media of the carotid artery is associated with the prevalence of cardiovascular disease. We studied the associations between the thickness of the carotid-artery intima and media and the incidence of new myocardial infarction or stroke in persons without clinical cardiovascular disease. Noninvasive measurements of the intima and media of the common and internal carotid artery were made with high-resolution ultrasonography in 5858 subjects 65 years of age or older. Cardiovascular events (new myocardial infarction or stroke) served as outcome variables in subjects without clinical cardiovascular disease (4476 subjects) over a median follow-up period of 6.2 years. The incidence of cardiovascular events correlated with measurements of carotid-artery intima-media thickness. The relative risk of myocardial infarction or stroke increased with intima-media thickness (P<0.001). The relative risk of myocardial infarction or stroke (adjusted for age and sex) for the quintile with the highest thickness as compared with the lowest quintile was 3.87 (95 percent confidence interval, 2.72 to 5.51). The association between cardiovascular events and intima-media thickness remained significant after adjustment for traditional risk factors, showing increasing risks for each quintile of combined intima-media thickness, from the second quintile (relative risk, 1.54; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.04 to 2.28), to the third (relative risk, 1.84; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.26 to 2.67), fourth (relative risk, 2.01; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.38 to 2.91), and fifth (relative risk, 3.15; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.19 to 4.52). The results of separate analyses of myocardial infarction and stroke paralleled those for the combined end point. Increases in the thickness of the intima and media of the carotid artery, as measured noninvasively by ultrasonography, are directly associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in older adults without a history of cardiovascular disease.
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            Association of coronary heart disease incidence with carotid arterial wall thickness and major risk factors: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, 1987-1993.

            Few studies have determined whether greater carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) in asymptomatic individuals is associated prospectively with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). In the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, carotid IMT, an index of generalized atherosclerosis, was defined as the mean of IMT measurements at six sites of the carotid arteries using B-mode ultrasound. The authors assessed its relation to CHD incidence over 4-7 years of follow-up (1987-1993) in four US communities (Forsyth County, North Carolina; Jackson, Mississippi; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Washington County, Maryland) from samples of 7,289 women and 5,552 men aged 45-64 years who were free of clinical CHD at baseline. There were 96 incident events for women and 194 for men. In sex-specific Cox proportional hazards models adjusted only for age, race, and center, the hazard rate ratio comparing extreme mean IMT (> or = 1 mm) to not extreme (< 1 mm) was 5.07 for women (95% confidence interval 3.08-8.36) and 1.85 for men (95% confidence interval 1.28-2.69). The relation was graded (monotonic), and models with cubic splines indicated significant nonlinearity. The strength of the association was reduced by including major CHD risk factors, but remained elevated at higher IMT. Up to 1 mm mean IMT, women had lower adjusted annual event rates than did men, but above 1 mm their event rate was closer to that of men. Thus, mean carotid IMT is a noninvasive predictor of future CHD incidence.
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              Prognostic impact of coronary vasodilator dysfunction on adverse long-term outcome of coronary heart disease.

              Endothelial vasodilator dysfunction is a characteristic feature of patients at risk for coronary atherosclerosis. Therefore, we prospectively investigated whether coronary endothelial dysfunction predicts disease progression and cardiovascular event rates. Coronary vasoreactivity was assessed in 147 patients using the endothelium-dependent dilator acetylcholine, sympathetic activation by cold pressor testing, dilator responses to increased blood flow, and dilation in response to nitroglycerin. Cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, coronary bypass grafting, ischemic stroke, or peripheral artery revascularization) served as outcome variables over a median follow-up period of 7.7 years. Patients suffering from cardiovascular events during follow-up (n=16) had significantly increased vasoconstrictor responses to acetylcholine infusion (P=0. 009) and cold pressor testing (P=0.002), as well as significantly blunted vasodilator responses to increased blood flow (P<0.001) and the intracoronary injection of nitroglycerin (P=0.001). Impaired endothelial and endothelium-independent coronary vasoreactivity were associated with a significantly higher incidence of cardiovascular events by Kaplan-Meier analysis. By multivariate analysis, all tests of coronary vasoreactivity were significant, independent predictors of a poor prognosis, even after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors or the presence of atherosclerosis itself. Coronary endothelial vasodilator dysfunction predicts long-term atherosclerotic disease progression and cardiovascular event rates. Thus, the assessment of coronary endothelial vasoreactivity can provide pivotal information as both a diagnostic and prognostic tool in patients at risk for coronary heart disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Vascular Medicine
                Vasc Med
                SAGE Publications
                1358-863X
                1477-0377
                June 29 2016
                August 2006
                June 29 2016
                August 2006
                : 11
                : 3
                : 201-211
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USA,
                [2 ]Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
                [3 ]St John Hospital and Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA
                [4 ]Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
                [5 ]Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
                [6 ]University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia, PA, USA
                Article
                10.1177/1358863x06070511
                © 2006

                http://journals.sagepub.com/page/policies/text-and-data-mining-license

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