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      Vitamin-D-Dependent Rickets Type 2

      Hormone Research in Paediatrics

      S. Karger AG

      Rickets, Vitamin D, Vitamin-D-dependent rickets, Alopecia

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          Abstract

          Vitamin-D-dependent rickets type 2 results from autosomal recessive mutations of the vitamin D receptor gene. With congenital total body alopecia and onset of rickets during the second half of the first year of life, patients display rapidly progressing rachitic bone changes, hypocalcemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism. This article describes extensive personal experience with about one third of the world’s reported cases, their clinical course, the physiological consequences, diagnostic steps, molecular findings and therapeutic approach, as they developed over the course of the last 25 years.

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          Most cited references 3

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          Duodenal calcium absorption in vitamin D receptor-knockout mice: functional and molecular aspects.

          Rickets and hyperparathyroidism caused by a defective vitamin D receptor (VDR) can be prevented in humans and animals by high calcium intake, suggesting that intestinal calcium absorption is critical for 1,25(OH)(2) vitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)] action on calcium homeostasis. We assessed the rate of serum (45)Ca accumulation within 10 min of oral gavage in two strains of VDR-knockout (KO) mice (Leuven and Tokyo KO) and observed a 3-fold lower area under the curve in both KO strains. Moreover, we evaluated the expression of intestinal candidate genes involved in transcellular calcium transport. The calcium transport protein1 (CaT1) was more abundantly expressed at mRNA level than the epithelial calcium channel (ECaC) in duodenum, but both were considerably reduced (CaT1>90%, ECaC>60%) in the two VDR-KO strains on a normal calcium diet. Calbindin-D(9K) expression was decreased only in the Tokyo KO, whereas plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA(1b)) expression was normal in both VDR-KOs. In Leuven wild-type mice, a high calcium diet inhibited (>90%) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) injection or low calcium diet induced (6-fold) duodenal CaT1 expression and, to a lesser degree, ECaC and calbindin-D(9K) expression. In Leuven KO mice, however, high or low calcium intake decreased calbindin-D(9K) and PMCA(1b) expression, whereas CaT1 and ECaC expression remained consistently low on any diet. These results suggest that the expression of the novel duodenal epithelial calcium channels (in particular CaT1) is strongly vitamin D-dependent, and that calcium influx, probably interacting with calbindin-D(9K), should be considered as a rate-limiting step in the process of vitamin D-dependent active calcium absorption.
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            A missense mutation in the zinc-finger domain of the human hairless gene underlies congenital atrichia in a family of Irish travellers.

             W. Ahmad,  A Irvine,  King Lam (1998)
            Congenital atrichia is a rare, recessively inherited form of hair loss affecting both males and females and is characterized by a complete absence of hair follicles. Recently, a mutation in the human hairless gene was implicated in the pathogenesis of congenital atrichia. The human hairless gene encodes a putative single zinc-finger transcription-factor protein with restricted expression in brain and skin, which is believed to regulate catagen remodeling in the hair cycle. In this study, we report the identification of a missense mutation in the zinc-finger domain of the hairless gene in a large inbred family of Irish Travellers with congenital atrichia. The mutated arginine residue is conserved among human, mouse, and rat, suggesting that it is of significant importance to the function of the zinc-finger domain.
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              Calcitriol-resistant rickets due to vitamin D receptor defects

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2002
                2002
                29 November 2002
                : 58
                : 6
                : 297-302
                Affiliations
                Department of Pediatrics, Meyer Children’s Hospital, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, Israel
                Article
                66442 Horm Res 2002;58:297–302
                10.1159/000066442
                12446995
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, References: 26, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Extensive Personal Experience

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