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      Modulating the Progression in IgA Nephropathy

      a , b

      Nephron Clinical Practice

      S. Karger AG

      IgA nephropathy, Vitamin E, Steroids, Cytotoxics, Tonsillectomy

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          Abstract

          IgA nephropathy affects almost 1% of the population and yet the diagnosis is often missed. This significant kidney disease is often progressive with 25% of the patients going on to end-stage kidney disease over the course of 25 years. This minireview describes the clinical presentations in children and young adults. Therapeutic options are discussed including angiotensin-converting enzyme blockade, steroids, cytotoxics, tonsillectomy, fish oil, vitamin E, singly or in combination, in order to modulate the rate of progression.

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          Most cited references 60

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          IgA nephropathy.

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            Natural history of idiopathic IgA nephropathy: role of clinical and histological prognostic factors.

             G D'Amico (2000)
            Idiopathic immunoglobulin A nephropathy is characterized by an extreme variability in clinical course and sometimes by the unpredictability of the ultimate outcome. Among the numerous studies published in the last 15 years that have calculated the actuarial renal survival and tried to individuate the prognostic role of the clinical and histological features present at the onset of the disease or the time of biopsy, we chose to analyze critically the results of the most valid (30 studies). Actuarial renal survival at 10 years in adults was between 80% and 85% in most of the European and Asian studies, but it was less in studies from the United States and exceeded 90% in the few studies of children. Concordance existed in this selected literature that impairment of renal function, severe proteinuria, and arterial hypertension are the strongest and more reliable clinical predictors of an unfavorable outcome. However, analysis of the prognostic value of morphological lesions was more difficult because they have been characterized in some studies using an overall score or histological classes of progressively more severe involvement and, in others, using a semiquantitative grading of individual glomerular, tubular, interstitial, and vascular changes. In adult patients, a high score of glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions, corresponding to classes IV and V of the Lee or Haas classifications, predicted a more rapid progression. When single lesions were analyzed separately, glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis appeared to be the strongest, most reliable predictors of unfavorable prognosis. More controversial was the role of crescents and capsular adhesions. None of the immunohistological features was found to be a risk factor for progression in the more accurate statistical analyses. The same histological features predicted outcome in children, although the severity of lesions at the time of biopsy was usually less than that in adults. However, in the single patient, even the evaluation of these prognostic markers sometimes fails to correctly predict outcome, probably because of the heterogeneity of the disease and the discontinuous activity of some injuring mechanisms during its course.
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              Oxygen free radicals in ischemic acute renal failure in the rat.

              During renal ischemia, ATP is degraded to hypoxanthine. When xanthine oxidase converts hypoxanthine to xanthine in the presence of molecular oxygen, superoxide radical (O-2) is generated. We studied the role of O-2 and its reduction product OH X in mediating renal injury after ischemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent right nephrectomy followed by 60 min of occlusion of the left renal artery. The O-2 scavenger superoxide dismutase (SOD) was given 8 min before clamping and before release of the renal artery clamp. Control rats received 5% dextrose instead. Plasma creatinine was lower in SOD treated rats: 1.5, 1.0, and 0.8 mg/dl vs. 2.5, 2.5, and 2.1 mg/dl at 24, 48, and 72 h postischemia. 24 h after ischemia inulin clearance was higher in SOD treated rats than in controls (399 vs. 185 microliter/min). Renal blood flow, measured after ischemia plus 15 min of reflow, was also greater in SOD treated than in control rats. Furthermore, tubular injury, judged histologically in perfusion fixed specimens, was less in SOD treated rats. Rats given SOD inactivated by prior incubation with diethyldithiocarbamate had plasma creatinine values no different from those of control rats. The OH X scavenger dimethylthiourea (DMTU) was given before renal artery occlusion. DMTU treated rats had lower plasma creatinine than did controls: 1.7, 1.7, and 1.3 mg/dl vs. 3.2, 2.2, and 2.4 mg/dl at 24, 48, and 72 h postischemia. Neither SOD nor DMTU caused an increase in renal blood flow, urine flow rate, or solute excretion in normal rats. The xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol was given before ischemia to prevent the generation of oxygen free radicals. Plasma creatinine was lower in allopurinol treated rats: 2.7, 2.2, and 1.4 mg/dl vs. 3.6, 3.5, and 2.3 mg/dl at 24, 48, and 72 h postischemia. Catalase treatment did not protect against renal ischemia, perhaps because its large size limits glomerular filtration and access to the tubular lumen. Superoxide-mediated lipid peroxidation was studied after renal ischemia. 60 min of ischemia did not increase the renal content of the lipid peroxide malondialdehyde, whereas ischemia plus 15 min reflow resulted in a large increase in kidney lipid peroxides. Treatment with SOD before renal ischemia prevented the reflow-induced increase in lipid peroxidation in renal cortical mitochondria but not in crude cortical homogenates. In summary, the oxygen free radical scavengers SOD and DMTU, and allopurinol, which inhibits free radical generation, protected renal function after ischemia. Reperfusion after ischemia resulted in lipid peroxidation; SOD decreased lipid peroxidation in cortical mitochondria after renal ischemia and reflow. We concluded that restoration of oxygen supply to ischemic kidney results in the production of oxygen free radicals, which causes renal injury by lipid peroxidation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2006
                August 2006
                02 June 2006
                : 104
                : 1
                : c61-c68
                Affiliations
                aUniversity of Vermont and the Barbara Bush Children’s Hospital, Maine Medical Center, Portland, Me., and bSchneider Children’s Hospital of Long Island, Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, N.Y., USA
                Article
                93672 Nephron Clin Pract 2006;104:c61–c68
                10.1159/000093672
                16741372
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 1, References: 93, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/93672
                Categories
                Minireview

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Vitamin E, IgA nephropathy, Tonsillectomy, Steroids, Cytotoxics

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