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      Morphological Studies of Prolactin-Secreting Cells in Estrogen Receptor α and Estrogen Receptor β Knockout Mice

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          Abstract

          Estrogens play a major role in the regulation of prolactin (PRL) secretion through activation of pituitary and hypothalamic estrogen receptors (ERs). In order to evaluate the relative role of ERα and ERβ in the control of PRL density in the pituitary gland, we performed immunocytochemical localization of PRL and ERs in pituitaries of wild-type (WT), ERα knockout (KO) and ERβKO mice. In WT and ERβKO anterior pituitaries, the vast majority of secretory cells contained ERα immunoreactivity, while no ERα immunostaining could be found in ERαKO pituitaries. No ERβ immunoreactivity could be detected in pituitaries of WT, ERαKO or ERβKO mice. At the light microscopic level, a large number of cells staining for PRL were present in pituitaries of female WT, while in female ERαKO pituitaries, the density of PRL cells was much lower. In WT male pituitaries, the density of PRL cells was lower than observed in female WT, while PRL staining was markedly decreased in male ERαKO as compared to male WT. In ERβKO mice of both sexes, the results were identical to those observed in WT animals. At the electron microscopic level, in WT mice of both sexes, type 1 PRL cells exhibited a well-developed Golgi apparatus and a large number of strongly stained large mature and immature secretory granules. Type 2 PRL cells were also present in the pituitary. Type 2 PRL cells contain small poorly labelled granules. In ERαKO mice of both sexes, type 1 PRL cells were atrophied with poorly developed Golgi apparatus, and no type 2 PRL cells could be observed. In ERαKO pituitaries, typical gonadectomy cells were found. No ultrastructural changes were observed in PRL cells of ERβKO mice. The present data strongly suggest that the positive regulation of PRL expression at the pituitary level by estrogens is mediated by ERα and does not involve ERβ activation.

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          Most cited references 3

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          Role of Estrogen Receptor-  in the Anterior Pituitary Gland

           K Scully (1997)
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            Ontogeny and subcellular localization of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) in the human and rat adrenal, ovary and testis

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              Receptor null mice reveal contrasting roles for estrogen receptor α and β in reproductive tissues

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                2003
                June 2003
                13 June 2003
                : 77
                : 5
                : 324-333
                Affiliations
                Oncology and Molecular Endocrinology Research Center and Quebec Genome Center, Le Centre Hospitalier de l’Université Laval (CHUL), Québec, Qué., Canada
                Article
                70898 Neuroendocrinology 2003;77:324–333
                10.1159/000070898
                12806178
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 9, References: 22, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Differentiation of Pituitary Cells

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