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      Exploring Qualities Present in Current Versus Dissolved Cross-Group Friendships

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      * , a , , a , a
      Social Psychological Bulletin
      PsychOpen
      cross-group friendships, social class, SES, friendship, social network integration

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          Abstract

          In general, cross-group friendships are less stable than same-group friendships. What conditions are present in currently existing versus dissolved cross-group friendships? In order to examine qualities that may influence cross-group friendship stability we compared current and dissolved friendships, including cross-group friendships. Cross-group friendships exist in various group domains, some more easily categorizable than others. That is, sometimes it is easy to tell that a relationship is cross-group (e.g., cross-race), and other times this is less clear (e.g., cross-socio-economic status). Thus, we compared current and dissolved friendships across both a more and a less easily categorizable group domain. In this study, participants reported on their current and dissolved friendships, and we found that, overall, friendship influencing qualities such as closeness, similarity, and social network integration (i.e., becoming friends with the friends of one’s own friends) were present to a greater extent in current versus dissolved friendships. This was the case for both cross-group and same-group friendships. These qualities may influence cross-group friendship stability.

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            A meta-analytic test of intergroup contact theory.

            The present article presents a meta-analytic test of intergroup contact theory. With 713 independent samples from 515 studies, the meta-analysis finds that intergroup contact typically reduces intergroup prejudice. Multiple tests indicate that this finding appears not to result from either participant selection or publication biases, and the more rigorous studies yield larger mean effects. These contact effects typically generalize to the entire outgroup, and they emerge across a broad range of outgroup targets and contact settings. Similar patterns also emerge for samples with racial or ethnic targets and samples with other targets. This result suggests that contact theory, devised originally for racial and ethnic encounters, can be extended to other groups. A global indicator of Allport's optimal contact conditions demonstrates that contact under these conditions typically leads to even greater reduction in prejudice. Closer examination demonstrates that these conditions are best conceptualized as an interrelated bundle rather than as independent factors. Further, the meta-analytic findings indicate that these conditions are not essential for prejudice reduction. Hence, future work should focus on negative factors that prevent intergroup contact from diminishing prejudice as well as the development of a more comprehensive theory of intergroup contact. Copyright 2006 APA.
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              Inclusion of Other in the Self Scale and the structure of interpersonal closeness.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                SPB
                Soc Psychol Bull
                Social Psychological Bulletin
                Soc. Psychol. Bull.
                PsychOpen
                2569-653X
                1896-1800
                30 October 2020
                2020
                : 15
                : 3
                : e2951
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada
                [2]College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr NW, Calgary, AB, Canada, T2N 1N4. ebuliga@ 123456ucalgary.ca
                Article
                spb.2951
                10.32872/spb.2951
                3c7bd909-8f19-4c3a-a9db-0f1610318683
                Copyright @ 2020

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 4.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 31 May 2019
                : 21 April 2020
                Categories
                Research Article
                Materials

                Psychology
                cross-group friendships,social class,SES,friendship,social network integration
                Psychology
                cross-group friendships, social class, SES, friendship, social network integration

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