16
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Prevalence of different pain categories based on pain spreading on the bodies of older adults in Sweden: a descriptive-level and multilevel association with demographics, comorbidities, medications, and certain lifestyle factors (PainS65+)

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Background and objective

          There is limited knowledge about the prevalence of pain and its relation to comorbidities, medication, and certain lifestyle factors in older adults. To address this limitation, this cross-sectional study examined the spreading of pain on the body in a sample of 6611 subjects ≥65 years old (mean age = 75.0 years; standard deviation [SD] = 7.7) living in southeastern Sweden.

          Methods

          Sex, age, comorbidities, medication, nicotine, alcohol intake, and physical activity were analyzed in relation to the following pain categories: local pain (LP) (24.1%), regional pain medium (RP-Medium) (20.3%), regional pain heavy (RP-Heavy) (5.2%), and widespread pain (WSP) (1.7%).

          Results

          RP-Medium, RP-Heavy, and WSP were associated more strongly with women than with men (all p<0.01). RP-Heavy was less likely in the 80–84 and >85 age groups compared to the 65–69 age group (both p<0.01). Traumatic injuries, rheumatoid arthritis/osteoarthritis, and analgesics were associated with all pain categories (all p<0.001). An association with gastrointestinal disorders was found in LP, RP-Medium, and RP-Heavy (all p<0.01). Depressive disorders were associated with all pain categories, except for LP (all p<0.05). Disorders of the central nervous system were associated with both RP-Heavy and WSP (all p<0.05). Medication for peripheral vascular disorders was associated with RP-Medium ( p<0.05), and hypnotics were associated with RP-Heavy ( p<0.01).

          Conclusion

          More than 50% of older adults suffered from different pain spread categories. Women were more likely to experience greater spreading of pain than men. A noteworthy number of common comorbidities and medications were associated with increased likelihood of pain spread from LP to RP-Medium, RP-Heavy, and WSP. Effective management plans should consider these observed associations to improve functional deficiency and decrease spreading of pain-related disability in older adults.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 42

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: found
          Is Open Access

          A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of chronic widespread pain in the general population

          One in 10 adults report chronic widespread pain with potential sociocultural variation. Cultural differences in pain reporting should be considered in future research. Supplemental Digital Content is Available in the Text.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Localized or widespread musculoskeletal pain: does it matter?

            Although epidemiological descriptions indicate that musculoskeletal pain is often widespread, still a lot of musculoskeletal pain is diagnosed and treated as localized pain. This led us to question whether localized pain exists at all and to evaluate its functional impact compared with that of widespread musculoskeletal pain. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the prevalence of localized and widespread musculoskeletal pain and its association to functional ability. In 2004, questionnaires about musculoskeletal pain were mailed to seven age groups in Ullensaker, Norway: 24-26, 34-36, 44-46, 54-56, 64-66, 74-76, and 84-86 years old. In total, 3325 persons participated (participation rate 54.4%). We excluded the oldest age group and persons who did not respond to any questions about pain during the previous week, thus reducing the participants in this study to 3179. Although musculoskeletal pain occurred frequently in the population, localized pain, in the meaning of single site pain, was relatively rare. Most people having musculoskeletal pain reported pain from a number of sites. Furthermore, experiencing single site pain did not have a large impact on physical fitness, feelings, or daily and social activities. Functional problems increased markedly, in an almost linear way with increasing number of pain sites. These findings suggest that musculoskeletal pain usually coexists with pain in other body regions and that the functional consequences are highly dependent on how widespread the pain is. This should have important implications for future research into musculoskeletal pain, and for clinical and social insurance medicine.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Chronic pain in a geographically defined general population: studies of differences in age, gender, social class, and pain localization.

              To establish basic epidemiological data on chronic pain (duration > 3 months) in a defined population. Relationships between age, gender, and social class were tested. A survey of pain symptoms, including location, intensity, duration, and functional capacity, was conducted by means of a mail questionnaire. General populations in two Swedish primary health care districts. Medical care was provided in a state health system. A random sample (from the population register) of 15% of the population aged 25-74 (n = 1,806). The response rate was 90%. Descriptive epidemiologic data in relation to objectives of the study. Without sex differences, 55% (95% confidence interval, 53-58%) of the population had perceived persistent pain for 3 months and 49% for 6 months. Among individuals with chronic pain, 90% localized their pain to the musculoskeletal system to a variable extent. Women experienced more multiple localizations of pain and had pain in the neck, shoulder, arm, and thigh to a greater extent than men. Prevalence of pain increased by age up to 50-59 years for both genders and then slowly decreased. The neck-shoulder area was the most common site of pain (30.2%), followed by the lower back (23.2%). Even in the youngest age groups more than one of four reported chronic pain. Blue-collar workers and employers (including farmers) reported chronic pain to a greater extent than other groups. In 13% of the population, manifest pain problems were associated with reduced functional capacity. Chronic pain symptoms are common but unevenly distributed in a general population. The results may influence planning and consultation in primary health care as well as warranting selective prevention activities.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2016
                30 November 2016
                : 9
                : 1131-1141
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Pain and Rehabilitation Medicine
                [2 ]Division of Health Care Analysis, Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden
                Author notes
                Correspondence: E Dragioti, Pain and Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Linköping, SE-581 85 Linköping, Sweden, Tel +46 7 6325 1361, Email elena.dragioti@ 123456liu.se
                Article
                jpr-9-1131
                10.2147/JPR.S119845
                5138042
                27942232
                © 2016 Dragioti et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                comorbidity, pain spreading, chronic pain, older adults, aging, medication

                Comments

                Comment on this article