41
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      YAP and TAZ: a signalling hub of the tumour microenvironment

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          YAP and TAZ are transcriptional activators pervasively induced in several human solid tumours and their functions in cancer cells are the focus of intense investigation. These studies established that YAP and TAZ are essential to trigger numerous cell-autonomous responses, such as sustained proliferation, cell plasticity, therapy resistance and metastasis. Yet tumours are complex entities, wherein cancer cells are just one of the components of a composite "tumour tissue". The other component, the tumour stroma, is composed of an extracellular matrix with aberrant mechanical properties and other cell types, including cancer-associated fibroblasts and immune cells. The stroma entertains multiple and bidirectional interactions with tumour cells, establishing dependencies essential to unleash tumorigenesis. The molecular players of such interplay remain partially understood. Here, we review the emerging role of YAP and TAZ in choreographing tumour-stromal interactions. YAP and TAZ act within tumour cells to orchestrate responses in stromal cells. Vice versa, YAP and TAZ in stromal cells trigger effects that positively feed back on the growth of tumour cells. Recognizing YAP and TAZ as a hub of the network of signals exchanged within the tumour microenvironment provides a fresh perspective on the molecular principles of tumour self-organization, promising to unveil numerous new vulnerabilities.

          Related collections

          Most cited references64

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Regulatory T cells in cancer immunotherapy

          FOXP3-expressing regulatory T (Treg) cells, which suppress aberrant immune response against self-antigens, also suppress anti-tumor immune response. Infiltration of a large number of Treg cells into tumor tissues is often associated with poor prognosis. There is accumulating evidence that the removal of Treg cells is able to evoke and enhance anti-tumor immune response. However, systemic depletion of Treg cells may concurrently elicit deleterious autoimmunity. One strategy for evoking effective tumor immunity without autoimmunity is to specifically target terminally differentiated effector Treg cells rather than all FOXP3+ T cells, because effector Treg cells are the predominant cell type in tumor tissues. Various cell surface molecules, including chemokine receptors such as CCR4, that are specifically expressed by effector Treg cells can be the candidates for depleting effector Treg cells by specific cell-depleting monoclonal antibodies. In addition, other immunological characteristics of effector Treg cells, such as their high expression of CTLA-4, active proliferation, and apoptosis-prone tendency, can be exploited to control specifically their functions. For example, anti-CTLA-4 antibody may kill effector Treg cells or attenuate their suppressive activity. It is hoped that combination of Treg-cell targeting (e.g., by reducing Treg cells or attenuating their suppressive activity in tumor tissues) with the activation of tumor-specific effector T cells (e.g., by cancer vaccine or immune checkpoint blockade) will make the current cancer immunotherapy more effective.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Why don't we get more cancer? A proposed role of the microenvironment in restraining cancer progression.

            Tumors are like new organs and are made of multiple cell types and components. The tumor competes with the normal microenvironment to overcome antitumorigenic pressures. Before that battle is won, the tumor may exist within the organ unnoticed by the host, referred to as 'occult cancer'. We review how normal tissue homeostasis and architecture inhibit progression of cancer and how changes in the microenvironment can shift the balance of these signals to the procancerous state. We also include a discussion of how this information is being tailored for clinical use.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              YAP/TAZ incorporation in the β-catenin destruction complex orchestrates the Wnt response.

              The Hippo transducers YAP/TAZ have been shown to play positive, as well as negative, roles in Wnt signaling, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we provide biochemical, functional, and genetic evidence that YAP and TAZ are integral components of the β-catenin destruction complex that serves as cytoplasmic sink for YAP/TAZ. In Wnt-ON cells, YAP/TAZ are physically dislodged from the destruction complex, allowing their nuclear accumulation and activation of Wnt/YAP/TAZ-dependent biological effects. YAP/TAZ are required for intestinal crypt overgrowth induced by APC deficiency and for crypt regeneration ex vivo. In Wnt-OFF cells, YAP/TAZ are essential for β-TrCP recruitment to the complex and β-catenin inactivation. In Wnt-ON cells, release of YAP/TAZ from the complex is instrumental for Wnt/β-catenin signaling. In line, the β-catenin-dependent maintenance of ES cells in an undifferentiated state is sustained by loss of YAP/TAZ. This work reveals an unprecedented signaling framework relevant for organ size control, regeneration, and tumor suppression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Cancer
                Nat Rev Cancer
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1474-175X
                1474-1768
                July 3 2019
                Article
                10.1038/s41568-019-0168-y
                31270418
                3c97ac0a-1428-4248-b9a9-e6732a6989bd
                © 2019

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

                History

                Comments

                Comment on this article