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      EQ-5D-5L Slovenian population norms


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          The study aims to present Slovenian EQ-5D-5L population norms for different age and gender subgroups that can be used as reference values in future studies concerning health status. The secondary aim is to compare those norms with population norms from some other countries in Europe and elsewhere.


          The cross-sectional survey was conducted between November 2019 and February 2020 via online panel. 1071 adults aged 18+ were included in the survey. The general population was sampled using quota sampling in terms of age, gender, and NUTS2 region. In the study, the EQ-5D-5L Slovenian online version was used. Descriptive statistics was used to present health status by age groups and genders for the EQ-5D-5L descriptive system, EQ VAS and the EQ-5D-5L index score. The latter was derived from Slovenian EQ-3D-3L tariff, transformed to five levels using the crosswalk methodology.


          The mean EQ VAS score in the Slovenian population was 79.9, mean utility index was 0.808. 28.2% of the population did not have problems on any dimension and 3.9% of the population had problems on all dimensions. Persons residing in Western Slovenia had, on average, 0.016 higher utility score, compared to Eastern Slovenia. Effect of gender was not significant. Age was negatively associated with both utility index and EQ VAS score. Education was positively correlated to health status. Problems on dimensions were generally increasing with age, except for anxiety/depression dimension, where youngest group (ages 18–29) reported more anxiety/depression compared to older counterparts. Self-reported anxiety/depression was more pronounced in women.


          Similarly to other countries, the health generally deteriorates with age, except for the anxiety/depression dimension where the share of respondents reporting no problems was lowest in the youngest age group. The open question for the future remains, whether population norms from this online sample differ significantly from the actual EQ-5D-5L health status data of the Slovenian general population.

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          The Health Utilities Index (HUI®): concepts, measurement properties and applications

          This is a review of the Health Utilities Index (HUI®) multi-attribute health-status classification systems, and single- and multi-attribute utility scoring systems. HUI refers to both HUI Mark 2 (HUI2) and HUI Mark 3 (HUI3) instruments. The classification systems provide compact but comprehensive frameworks within which to describe health status. The multi-attribute utility functions provide all the information required to calculate single-summary scores of health-related quality of life (HRQL) for each health state defined by the classification systems. The use of HUI in clinical studies for a wide variety of conditions in a large number of countries is illustrated. HUI provides comprehensive, reliable, responsive and valid measures of health status and HRQL for subjects in clinical studies. Utility scores of overall HRQL for patients are also used in cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analyses. Population norm data are available from numerous large general population surveys. The widespread use of HUI facilitates the interpretation of results and permits comparisons of disease and treatment outcomes, and comparisons of long-term sequelae at the local, national and international levels.
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            Generic and disease-specific measures in assessing health status and quality of life.

            Application of generic and specific measures of health status and quality of life to different diseases, conditions, states, and populations is increasing. Four strategies for using these measures are separate generic and specific measures, modified generic measures, disease-specific supplements, and batteries. The preferred strategy depends on project aims, methodological concerns, and practical constraints. Generic measures are necessary to compare outcomes across different populations and interventions, particularly for cost-effectiveness studies. Disease-specific measures assess the special states and concerns of diagnostic groups. Specific measures may be more sensitive for the detection and quantification of small changes that are important to clinicians or patients. Comparison studies are needed of the validity, reliability, and responsiveness of generic and disease-specific measures in the same population and in minority and age-specific groups.
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              Is Open Access

              EQ-5D-5L norms for the urban Chinese population in China

              Background To generate Chinese population norms for the EQ-5D-5L dimensions, EQ-VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) scores and EQ-5D-5L index scores, stratified by gender and age. The EQ-5D is a widely used generic health-related quality of life instrument to describe population health and health outcomes in clinical trials and health economic evaluations. Currently, there are no EQ-5D-5L population norms for China. Methods This norm study utilized the data collected in an EQ-5D-5L valuation study in China between December 2012 and January 2013. In the valuation study, respondents were asked to report their own health states using the EQ-5D-5L descriptive system and the EQ-VAS. Respondents’ demographic information was also collected. The EQ index score was calculated using the EQ-5D-5L value set based on the Chinese urban population. Norm scores were reported by important demographic variables. Results The mean EQ-VAS scores ranged between 88.3 for males of  70 years to 0.971 for females of 30–39 years. Respondents reported more problems in the dimensions ‘pain/discomfort’ and ‘anxiety/depression’ than in the dimensions ‘mobility’, ‘self-care’ and ‘usual activities’ in all age groups. Conclusions The population norm scores for the EQ-5D can be used as reference values for comparative purposes in future Chinese studies. Further research into rural and/or a more representative population is warranted.

                Author and article information

                Health Qual Life Outcomes
                Health Qual Life Outcomes
                Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
                BioMed Central (London )
                7 October 2020
                7 October 2020
                : 18
                : 333
                GRID grid.424789.4, ISNI 0000 0001 2173 3666, Institute for Economic Research, ; Kardeljeva ploščad 17, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
                Author information
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                : 20 March 2020
                : 29 September 2020
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100010663, H2020 European Research Council;
                Award ID: 779312
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100004329, Javna Agencija za Raziskovalno Dejavnost RS;
                Award ID: P5-0096
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Health & Social care
                eq-5d-5l,eq vas,population norms,reference values,health status,patient-reported outcomes


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