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      PhosphoSitePlus: a comprehensive resource for investigating the structure and function of experimentally determined post-translational modifications in man and mouse

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          Abstract

          PhosphoSitePlus ( http://www.phosphosite.org) is an open, comprehensive, manually curated and interactive resource for studying experimentally observed post-translational modifications, primarily of human and mouse proteins. It encompasses 1 30 000 non-redundant modification sites, primarily phosphorylation, ubiquitinylation and acetylation. The interface is designed for clarity and ease of navigation. From the home page, users can launch simple or complex searches and browse high-throughput data sets by disease, tissue or cell line. Searches can be restricted by specific treatments, protein types, domains, cellular components, disease, cell types, cell lines, tissue and sequences or motifs. A few clicks of the mouse will take users to substrate pages or protein pages with sites, sequences, domain diagrams and molecular visualization of side-chains known to be modified; to site pages with information about how the modified site relates to the functions of specific proteins and cellular processes and to curated information pages summarizing the details from one record. PyMOL and Chimera scripts that colorize reactive groups on residues that are modified can be downloaded. Features designed to facilitate proteomic analyses include downloads of modification sites, kinase–substrate data sets, sequence logo generators, a Cytoscape plugin and BioPAX download to enable pathway visualization of the kinase–substrate interactions in PhosphoSitePlus®.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Gene ontology: tool for the unification of biology. The Gene Ontology Consortium.

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            Global survey of phosphotyrosine signaling identifies oncogenic kinases in lung cancer.

            Despite the success of tyrosine kinase-based cancer therapeutics, for most solid tumors the tyrosine kinases that drive disease remain unknown, limiting our ability to identify drug targets and predict response. Here we present the first large-scale survey of tyrosine kinase activity in lung cancer. Using a phosphoproteomic approach, we characterize tyrosine kinase signaling across 41 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and over 150 NSCLC tumors. Profiles of phosphotyrosine signaling are generated and analyzed to identify known oncogenic kinases such as EGFR and c-Met as well as novel ALK and ROS fusion proteins. Other activated tyrosine kinases such as PDGFRalpha and DDR1 not previously implicated in the genesis of NSCLC are also identified. By focusing on activated cell circuitry, the approach outlined here provides insight into cancer biology not available at the chromosomal and transcriptional levels and can be applied broadly across all human cancers.
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              Systematic and quantitative assessment of the ubiquitin-modified proteome.

              Despite the diverse biological pathways known to be regulated by ubiquitylation, global identification of substrates that are targeted for ubiquitylation has remained a challenge. To globally characterize the human ubiquitin-modified proteome (ubiquitinome), we utilized a monoclonal antibody that recognizes diglycine (diGly)-containing isopeptides following trypsin digestion. We identify ~19,000 diGly-modified lysine residues within ~5000 proteins. Using quantitative proteomics we monitored temporal changes in diGly site abundance in response to both proteasomal and translational inhibition, indicating both a dependence on ongoing translation to observe alterations in site abundance and distinct dynamics of individual modified lysines in response to proteasome inhibition. Further, we demonstrate that quantitative diGly proteomics can be utilized to identify substrates for cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases. Interrogation of the ubiquitinome allows for not only a quantitative assessment of alterations in protein homeostasis fidelity, but also identification of substrates for individual ubiquitin pathway enzymes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nucleic Acids Res
                nar
                nar
                Nucleic Acids Research
                Oxford University Press
                0305-1048
                1362-4962
                January 2012
                January 2012
                30 November 2011
                30 November 2011
                : 40
                : D1 , Database issue
                : D261-D270
                Affiliations
                Cell Signaling Technology, 3 Trask Lane, Danvers, MA 01923, USA
                Author notes
                *To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel: +1 978 867 2368; Fax: +1 978 867 2400; Email: phornbeck@ 123456cellsignal.com
                Article
                gkr1122
                10.1093/nar/gkr1122
                3245126
                22135298
                © The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Pages: 10
                Categories
                Articles

                Genetics

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