Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease with a consequent increase in fractures rates. Osteoporosis may be primary which is related with normal aging, or secondary which occurs in the presence of an underlying disease or medication. Osteoporosis is one of the significant comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence of osteoporosis and the influencing factors in COPD patients.
This is a two-group comparison study that was conducted among 30 COPD patients on inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and 33 controls. It was conducted in the outpatient clinics at the Departments of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Pulmonary Diseases in Bursa Uludag University Hospital, a tertiary reference center, in the northwest region of Turkey. For both groups, demographic variables, osteoporosis risk questioning, body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), biochemical blood tests, vertebral fractures on lumbar and thoracic x-rays were recorded. COPD patients were also evaluated for lung functions via spirometry.
Thirty patients with COPD (Group 1) and 33 controls (Group 2) were included in the study. Comparing the demographic and biochemical data, no difference was found between the groups except smoking (pack/year) (p<0.001) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p<0.001), which were significantly high in COPD group. BMD in the COPD group was significantly lower in both hip and lumbar regions compared with the controls. There were significant correlations between L2 BMD values and pulmonary function tests. BMI was significantly low in osteoporotic COPD patients when compared with the non-osteoporotic COPD patients (p=0.002).
In patients with COPD using inhaled corticosteroids, BMD was significantly low compared with the controls. Osteoporotic COPD patients had significantly lower BMI than non-osteoporotic. These findings suggest that pulmonary dysfunction and low BMI are associated with osteoporosis in COPD patients.