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      COPD and Osteoporosis: Associated Factors in Patients Treated with Inhaled Corticosteroids

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          Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease with a consequent increase in fractures rates. Osteoporosis may be primary which is related with normal aging, or secondary which occurs in the presence of an underlying disease or medication. Osteoporosis is one of the significant comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence of osteoporosis and the influencing factors in COPD patients.

          Patients and Methods

          This is a two-group comparison study that was conducted among 30 COPD patients on inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and 33 controls. It was conducted in the outpatient clinics at the Departments of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Pulmonary Diseases in Bursa Uludag University Hospital, a tertiary reference center, in the northwest region of Turkey. For both groups, demographic variables, osteoporosis risk questioning, body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), biochemical blood tests, vertebral fractures on lumbar and thoracic x-rays were recorded. COPD patients were also evaluated for lung functions via spirometry.


          Thirty patients with COPD (Group 1) and 33 controls (Group 2) were included in the study. Comparing the demographic and biochemical data, no difference was found between the groups except smoking (pack/year) (p<0.001) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p<0.001), which were significantly high in COPD group. BMD in the COPD group was significantly lower in both hip and lumbar regions compared with the controls. There were significant correlations between L2 BMD values and pulmonary function tests. BMI was significantly low in osteoporotic COPD patients when compared with the non-osteoporotic COPD patients (p=0.002).


          In patients with COPD using inhaled corticosteroids, BMD was significantly low compared with the controls. Osteoporotic COPD patients had significantly lower BMI than non-osteoporotic. These findings suggest that pulmonary dysfunction and low BMI are associated with osteoporosis in COPD patients.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and systemic inflammation: a systematic review and a meta-analysis.

          Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. Systemic inflammation may be involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders. A study was undertaken to determine whether systemic inflammation is present in stable COPD. A systematic review was conducted of studies which reported on the relationship between COPD, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) or forced vital capacity (FVC), and levels of various systemic inflammatory markers: C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, leucocytes, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukins 6 and 8. Where possible the results were pooled together to produce a summary estimate using a random or fixed effects model. Fourteen original studies were identified. Overall, the standardised mean difference in the CRP level between COPD and control subjects was 0.53 units (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34 to 0.72). The standardised mean difference in the fibrinogen level was 0.47 units (95% CI 0.29 to 0.65). Circulating leucocytes were also higher in COPD than in control subjects (standardised mean difference 0.44 units (95% CI 0.20 to 0.67)), as were serum TNF-alpha levels (standardised mean difference 0.59 units (95% CI 0.29 to 0.89)). Reduced lung function is associated with increased levels of systemic inflammatory markers which may have important pathophysiological and therapeutic implications for subjects with stable COPD.
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            Consensus development conference: diagnosis, prophylaxis, and treatment of osteoporosis.

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              Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis: synopsis of a WHO report. WHO Study Group.

               J Kanis (1994)
              The criteria required for an effective screening strategy for osteoporosis are largely met in Caucasian women. The disease is common and readily diagnosed by the measurement of bone mineral with single- or dual-energy absorptiometry. Such measurements have high specificity but lower sensitivity, so that the value of the technique is greater for those identified as being at higher risk. Against this background there is little evidence that osteoporosis can usefully be tackled by a public health policy to influence risk factors such as smoking, exercise and nutrition. This suggests that it is appropriate to consider targetting of treatment with agents affecting bone metabolism to susceptible individuals. Since the main benefits of the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) are probably on cardiovascular morbidity, the major role for selective screening is to direct non-HRT interventions. An appropriate time to consider screening and intervention is at the menopause, but screening at later ages is also worthy of consideration. Since the cost of screening is low and that of bone-active drugs is high, the selective use of screening techniques will improve the cost-benefit ratio of intervention.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                09 October 2020
                : 15
                : 2441-2448
                [1 ]Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Bursa Uludag University, Faculty of Medicine , Bursa, Turkey
                [2 ]Department of Biostatistics, Bursa Uludag University, Faculty of Medicine , Bursa, Turkey
                [3 ]Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Bursa Uludag University, Faculty of Medicine , Bursa, Turkey
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Suheda Ozcakir Bursa Uludag University, Faculty of Medicine , Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Bursa16059, Turkey Email
                © 2020 Ozcakir et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms (

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 10, References: 35, Pages: 8
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                osteoporosis, copd, bmi, bmd


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