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      The timing and causes of famines in Europe

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      Nature Sustainability

      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Is Open Access

          Old World megadroughts and pluvials during the Common Era

          An atlas of megadroughts in Europe and in the Mediterranean Basin during the Common Era provides insights into climate variability.
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            The causality analysis of climate change and large-scale human crisis.

             D. Zhang,  H F Lee,  C. Wang (2011)
            Recent studies have shown strong temporal correlations between past climate changes and societal crises. However, the specific causal mechanisms underlying this relation have not been addressed. We explored quantitative responses of 14 fine-grained agro-ecological, socioeconomic, and demographic variables to climate fluctuations from A.D. 1500-1800 in Europe. Results show that cooling from A.D. 1560-1660 caused successive agro-ecological, socioeconomic, and demographic catastrophes, leading to the General Crisis of the Seventeenth Century. We identified a set of causal linkages between climate change and human crisis. Using temperature data and climate-driven economic variables, we simulated the alternation of defined "golden" and "dark" ages in Europe and the Northern Hemisphere during the past millennium. Our findings indicate that climate change was the ultimate cause, and climate-driven economic downturn was the direct cause, of large-scale human crises in preindustrial Europe and the Northern Hemisphere.
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              The year without a summer

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Sustainability
                Nat Sustain
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                2398-9629
                June 2018
                June 14 2018
                June 2018
                : 1
                : 6
                : 283-288
                Article
                10.1038/s41893-018-0078-0
                © 2018

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