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      Aneurysms of the Sinuses of Valsalva

      ,

      Cardiology

      S. Karger AG

      Aneurysm, Congenital, Sinus of Valsalva, Acquired

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          Abstract

          Sinus of Valsalva aneurysms are rare cardiac anomalies which may be acquired or congenital, most commonly involving the right or noncoronary sinuses. The congenital aneurysms are more common and often caused by weakness at the junction of the aortic media and the annulus fibrosus. Acquired aneurysms are caused by conditions affecting the aortic wall, such as infections (syphilis, bacterial endocarditis, or tuberculosis), trauma, or connective tissue disorders. Unruptured aneurysms are usually found incidentally during diagnostic studies. More commonly, sinus of Valsalvaaneurysms are diagnosed after clinical sequelae of rupture. Diagnosis of sinus of Valsalva aneurysm is facilitated by echocardiography, contrast aortography, and more recently, magnetic resonance imaging. Repair is generally required for ruptured aneurysms; unruptured aneurysms encroaching on nearby structures, causing myocardial ischemia, or having the potential to rupture warrant repair. A review of the literature is presented focusing on anatomy, clinical presentation of ruptured and unruptured aneurysms, noninvasive diagnostic modalities, and techniques for repair of this anomaly.

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          Most cited references 50

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          Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm or fistula: management and outcome.

          Few large or long-term series exist regarding the management of patients with sinus of Valsalva aneurysms or fistulas (SVAFs). Between 1956 and 1997, 129 patients presented with a ruptured (64 cases; 49.6%) or nonruptured (65 cases; 50.4%) SVAF. The patients included 88 men and 41 women, with a mean age of 39.1 years. Associated findings included a history of endocarditis (42 cases; 32.6%), a bicuspid aortic valve (21 cases; 16.3%), a ventricular septal defect (15 cases; 11.6%), and Marfan's syndrome (12 cases; 9.3%). Operative procedures included simple plication (61 cases; 47.3%), patch repair (52 cases; 40.3%), aortic root replacement (16 cases; 12.4%), and aortic valve replacement/repair (75 cases; 58.1%). There were five in-hospital deaths (3.9%): four due to preexisting sepsis and endocarditis and one that followed dehiscence of the repair in a patient with Marfan's syndrome. Two patients (1.6%) had strokes during the early postoperative period. The survivors were followed up for 661.1 patient-years (5.3 years/patient). The following late complications occurred: prosthetic valve malfunction (5 cases; 3.9%), prosthetic valve endocarditis (3 cases; 2.3%), SVAF recurrence (2 cases; 1.6%), thrombosis (1 case; 0.8%), and anticoagulation-related bleeding (1 case; 0.8%). Resection and repair of SVAF entails an acceptably low operative risk and yields long-term freedom from symptoms. Early, aggressive treatment is recommended to prevent endocarditis or lesional enlargement, which causes worse symptoms and necessitates more extensive repair.
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            Transcatheter closure of a ruptured aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva.

            A ruptured aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva in a man of 34 was closed by a transcatheter technique with a 12 mm modified Rashkind umbrella device.
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              Congenital Heart Surgery Nomenclature and Database Project: aortic aneurysm, sinus of Valsalva aneurysm, and aortic dissection.

               W.Steves Ring (2000)
              The extant nomenclature for aortic aneurysms, sinus of valsalva aneurysms, and aortic dissections is reviewed for the purpose of establishing a unified reporting system. The subject was debated and reviewed by members of the STS-Congenital Heart Surgery Database Committee and representatives from the European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery. All efforts were made to include all relevant nomenclature categories using synonyms where appropriate. Classification was based on morphology, histology, anatomic location, etiology, and acuity. A comprehensive database set is presented that is based on a hierarchical scheme. Data are entered at various levels of complexity and detail that can be determined by the clinician. These data can lay the foundation for comprehensive risk stratification analyses. A minimum database set is also presented that will allow for data sharing that would lend itself to basic interpretation of trends. Outcome tables relating diagnoses, procedures, and various risk factors are presented.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2006
                August 2006
                16 August 2006
                : 106
                : 2
                : 73-81
                Affiliations
                Division of Cardiology, New York Presbyterian Hospital-Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, N.Y., USA
                Article
                92635 Cardiology 2006;106:73–81
                10.1159/000092635
                16612073
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 90, Pages: 9
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