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      COVID-19 and Tuberculosis Coinfection: An Observational Study

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          ABSTRACT

          Background

          COVID-19 is a highly infectious disease with a wide range of symptoms, from asymptomatic to acute respiratory distress syndrome that may even lead to death. Tuberculosis also is one of the deadliest respiratory infections. There is still a lack of literature about coinfection of these diseases in both adults and children.

          Materials and methods

          This retrospective study was performed in a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai, in which children with TB and those without a TB diagnosis were enrolled. All patients were tested for COVID-19 infection. Variables significantly associated with COVID-19 positivity, in children with TB were assessed and analyzed. Treatment protocols for COVID-19 were compared in children with TB and those without.

          Results

          No variable was significantly associated with COVID-19 positivity in children with TB. The mean duration of hospital stay for COVID-19 was not significantly different between the TB and non-TB groups. COVID-19 treatment did not differ in children with TB compared to those without. In both groups, children who succumbed to COVID-19 were the ones who required invasive ventilation along with steroids and had significant lesions on their chest radiology. Symptomatic treatment was all that was needed for the vast majority of the milder cases.

          Conclusion

          The management of COVID-19 is unrelated to the status of TB infection. We must fight new pandemics while ensuring that those in need of attention from ongoing illnesses like TB are provided with uninterrupted health care. We should not forget to suspect and manage TB appropriately (in the case of coinfection), as it is still one of the leading infectious causes of death worldwide.

          How to cite this article

          Mane SS, Janardhanan J, Pustake M, et al. COVID-19 and Tuberculosis Coinfection: An Observational Study. Pediatr Inf Dis 2023;5(2):45-48.

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          Most cited references11

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          Global Tuberculosis Report 2020 – Reflections on the Global TB burden, treatment and prevention efforts

          The October 2020 Global TB report reviews TB control strategies and United Nations (UN) targets set in the political declaration at the September 2018 UN General Assembly high-level meeting on TB held in New York. Progress in TB care and prevention has been very slow. In 2019, TB remained the most common cause of death from a single infectious pathogen. Globally, an estimated 10.0 million people developed TB disease in 2019, and there were an estimated 1.2 million TB deaths among HIV-negative people and an additional 208, 000 deaths among people living with HIV. Adults accounted for 88% and children for 12% of people with TB. The WHO regions of South-East Asia (44%), Africa (25%), and the Western Pacific (18%) had the most people with TB. Eight countries accounted for two thirds of the global total: India (26%), Indonesia (8.5%), China (8.4%), the Philippines (6.0%), Pakistan (5.7%), Nigeria (4.4%), Bangladesh (3.6%) and South Africa (3.6%). Only 30% of the 3.5 million five-year target for children treated for TB was met. Major advances have been development of new all oral regimens for MDRTB and new regimens for preventive therapy. In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic dislodged TB from the top infectious disease cause of mortality globally. Notably, global TB control efforts were not on track even before the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Many challenges remain to improve sub-optimal TB treatment and prevention services. Tuberculosis screening and diagnostic test services need to be ramped up. The major drivers of TB remain undernutrition, poverty, diabetes, tobacco smoking, and household air pollution and these need be addressed to achieve the WHO 2035 TB care and prevention targets. National programs need to include interventions for post-tuberculosis holistic wellbeing. From first detection of COVID-19 global coordination and political will with huge financial investments have led to the development of effective vaccines against SARS-CoV2 infection. The world now needs to similarly focus on development of new vaccines for TB utilizing new technological methods.
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            Active tuberculosis, sequelae and COVID-19 co-infection: first cohort of 49 cases

            The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) pandemic has attracted interest because of its global rapid spread, clinical severity, high mortality rate, and capacity to overwhelm healthcare systems [1, 2]. SARS-CoV-2 transmission occurs mainly through droplets, although surface contamination contributes and debate continues on aerosol transmission [3–5].
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              Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) when COVID-19 disease is suspected. Interim guidance

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                PID
                Pediatric Infectious Disease
                PID
                Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers
                2582-4988
                April-June 2023
                : 5
                : 2
                : 45-48
                Affiliations
                [1,2,4-8 ]Department of Pediatrics, Grant Government Medical College and Sir JJ Group of Hospitals, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
                [3 ]Department of Pediatrics, Grant Government Medical College and Sir JJ Group of Hospitals Mumbai, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India; GCSRT(c), Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
                Author notes
                Manas Pustake, Department of Pediatrics, Grant Government Medical College and Sir JJ Group of Hospitals, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India; GCSRT(c), Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, Phone: +91 9420420431, e-mail: pustakemanas@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                10.5005/jp-journals-10081-1367
                3cf4bb3b-6db1-4c4f-bee6-72f3b36a1e35
                Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).

                © The Author(s). 2023 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and non-commercial reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                History
                : 25 June 2022
                : 03 August 2022
                : 30 June 2023
                Categories
                ORIGINAL ARTICLE
                Custom metadata
                pid-05-045.pdf

                Pediatrics
                COVID-19,Coinfection,Tuberculosis
                Pediatrics
                COVID-19, Coinfection, Tuberculosis

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