Eukaryotic ribonuclease (RNase) H2 consists of one catalytic and two accessory subunits. Several single mutations in any one of these subunits of human RNase H2 cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome. To examine whether these mutations affect the complex stability and activity of RNase H2, three mutant proteins of His-tagged Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNase H2 (Sc-RNase H2*) were constructed. Sc-G42S*, Sc-L52R*, and Sc-K46W* contain single mutations in Sc-Rnh2Ap*, Sc-Rnh2Bp*, and Sc-Rnh2Cp*, respectively. The genes encoding the three subunits were coexpressed in Escherichia coli, and Sc-RNase H2* and its derivatives were purified in a heterotrimeric form. All of these mutant proteins exhibited enzymatic activity. However, only the enzymatic activity of Sc-G42S* was greatly reduced compared to that of the wild-type protein. Gly42 is conserved as Gly10 in Thermococcus kodakareansis RNase HII. To analyze the role of this residue, four mutant proteins, Tk-G10S, Tk-G10A, Tk-G10L, and Tk-G10P, were constructed. All mutant proteins were less stable than the wild-type protein by 2.9-7.6 degrees C in T(m). A comparison of their enzymatic activities, substrate binding affinities, and CD spectra suggests that the introduction of a bulky side chain into this position induces a local conformational change, which is unfavorable for both activity and substrate binding. These results indicate that Gly10 is required to make the protein fully active and stable.