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Mathematics for streamlined biofuel production from unicellular algae

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Biofuels

Future Science, LTD

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      Biodiesel from microalgae.

       Yusuf Chisti (2015)
      Continued use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies and the contribution of these fuels to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the environment. Renewable, carbon neutral, transport fuels are necessary for environmental and economic sustainability. Biodiesel derived from oil crops is a potential renewable and carbon neutral alternative to petroleum fuels. Unfortunately, biodiesel from oil crops, waste cooking oil and animal fat cannot realistically satisfy even a small fraction of the existing demand for transport fuels. As demonstrated here, microalgae appear to be the only source of renewable biodiesel that is capable of meeting the global demand for transport fuels. Like plants, microalgae use sunlight to produce oils but they do so more efficiently than crop plants. Oil productivity of many microalgae greatly exceeds the oil productivity of the best producing oil crops. Approaches for making microalgal biodiesel economically competitive with petrodiesel are discussed.
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        Dispersion of Soluble Matter in Solvent Flowing Slowly through a Tube

         Tyson Taylor (1953)
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          Is Open Access

          The hydrodynamics of swimming microorganisms

          Cell motility in viscous fluids is ubiquitous and affects many biological processes, including reproduction, infection, and the marine life ecosystem. Here we review the biophysical and mechanical principles of locomotion at the small scales relevant to cell swimming (tens of microns and below). The focus is on the fundamental flow physics phenomena occurring in this inertia-less realm, and the emphasis is on the simple physical picture. We review the basic properties of flows at low Reynolds number, paying special attention to aspects most relevant for swimming, such as resistance matrices for solid bodies, flow singularities, and kinematic requirements for net translation. Then we review classical theoretical work on cell motility: early calculations of the speed of a swimmer with prescribed stroke, and the application of resistive-force theory and slender-body theory to flagellar locomotion. After reviewing the physical means by which flagella are actuated, we outline areas of active research, including hydrodynamic interactions, biological locomotion in complex fluids, the design of small-scale artificial swimmers, and the optimization of locomotion strategies.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Biofuels
            Biofuels
            Future Science, LTD
            1759-7269
            1759-7277
            April 09 2014
            January 2014
            April 09 2014
            January 2014
            : 5
            : 1
            : 53-65
            10.4155/bfs.13.66
            © 2014

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