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      Effects of a Long-Term Inhalation of Fragrances on the Stress- Induced Immunosuppression in Mice

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          The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the long-term application of various fragrances on the suppression of immune response induced by high-pressure stress in mice. The immune response was analyzed based on plaque-forming cell (PFC) count, using mice sensitized with sheep red blood cells. The decreased PFC involving thymic involution induced by high-pressure stress in mice was restored by exposing the stressed mice to tuberose, lemon, oakmoss and labdanum for 24 h following exposure to stress. The decreased PFC and thymic involution from stress were restored by exposure to lemon and oakmoss, but not to tuberose and labdanum when the mice were exposed to those fragrances continuously for 3 weeks before the stress was given, followed by exposure to the same fragrances for 24 h after the stress. The decreased PFC and thymic involution from stress were restored by exposure to lemon and labdanum for 24 h after the stress, but not to tuberose over 3 weeks before the stress was given. These data suggest that the neuroimmunomodulatory effects of fragrances may be affected by tolerance depending on the kinds of fragrances in the case of a long-term application.

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          Most cited references 7

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          Animal models of depression: parallels and correlates to severe depression in humans.

          Drugs with antidepressant properties in patients with severe depression also have various behavioral and neurochemical effects in animals. This has given rise to numerous animal models that have been suggested to be valid for research into the neurobiology of depression and the neurochemical mechanisms of the antidepressant drugs. However, considerable evidence from many avenues of research indicates that severe depression is a biochemical disorder that develops in those individuals with some predisposing neurochemical vulnerability. Although the predisposing biochemical abnormality has not been identified, it may be related to the neurochemical mechanisms that regulate impulse traffic in various neural systems and maintain the homeostatic balance of neural activity within the brain. Therefore, the appropriate animal model for severe depression should have some disruption of neural functioning that is returned to normal by the chronic administration of antidepressant drugs. Of the numerous animal models of depression that have been presented in the literature, only the rat with olfactory bulb lesions meets this requirement. The behavioral and endocrine abnormalities induced by the olfactory bulb lesions are reversed by chronic (but not acute) treatment with antidepressants of various classes. Of the existing animal models of severe depression, the olfactory bulbectomy model holds the most promise for elucidating the neurobiology of depression and the neurochemistry of antidepressant drugs.
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            Effects of olfactory stimulation on the sleep time induced by pentobarbital administration in mice.

            The effect on the pentobarbital sleep time by olfactory stimulation with various odorants was investigated using mice to appraise the physiological or psychological significance of olfactory information. The sleep time was determined as the time elapsed between intraperitoneal pentobarbital administration and the first time that the animal was able to spontaneously right itself. The sleep time was affected by inhalation of some odorants compared to pure air controls, but not by others. The sleep time was prolonged by terpinyl acetate and phenethyl alcohol, and was shortened by lemon oil and jasmin oil. However, neither potentiation nor attenuation of pentobarbital action by odorant inhalation was observed when using anosmic mice produced by intranasal zinc sulphate treatment. In conclusion, olfactory stimulation associated with odorant inhalation influences the pentobarbital sleep time, suggesting that olfactory information may have a more potent influence on the physiological and psychological status than has previously been thought.
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              Origin of olfactory projections to lateral hypothalamus and nuclei gemini of the rat.


                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                December 1998
                16 October 1998
                : 5
                : 6
                : 318-322
                a Department of Immunology, and b Center of Animal Experiment, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, c Department of Psychiatry, Mie University School of Medicine, Tsu, d 1st Department of Pathology, Kagawa Medical University, Kita-gun, Kagawa, Japan
                26351 Neuroimmunomodulation 1998;5:318–322
                © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Tables: 4, References: 21, Pages: 5
                Original Paper


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