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      Riesgo de cáncer de mama en mujeres con patología mamaria benigna Translated title: Risk of breast cancer in women with benign breast disease


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          La enfermedad benigna de la mama incluye nódulos o anomalías del estado de la glándula mamaria. Constituyen un grupo heterogéneo de lesiones que incluyen anormalidades del desarrollo, lesiones inflamatorias, proliferaciones epiteliales y estromales, y neoplasias. El objetivo de esta investigación documental es realizar una descripción clínico-patológica de las lesiones benignas de mama más frecuentes, para dar a conocer el riesgo implícito que tienen cada una de ellas en el desarrollo del cáncer de mama. Cabe destacar, que algunas de estas lesiones están asociadas a un riesgo para desarrollar la enfermedad, sin embargo, sólo la hiperplasia ductal y lobulillar atípica y el papiloma, han mostrado una clara tendencia a elevar el mismo, no así otras lesiones que necesitan de la concurrencia de enfermedad proliferativa con o sin atipia, para ocasionar un incremento del riesgo.

          Translated abstract

          Benign breast disease including lumps or abnormalities state of the mammary gland. They are a heterogeneous group of lesions that include developmental abnormalities, inflammatory lesions, epithelial and stromal proliferation, and neoplasia. The objective of the research is to perform a clinical and pathological description of benign breast lesions frequently, to publicize the risk involved with each; in the development of breast cancer. Remarkably, some of these lesions are associated with a risk for developing the disease, however, only the ductal hyperplasia and lobular atypical papilloma, have sh own a clear tendency to increase it, but not other injuries that require the concurrent with or proliferative disease without atypia, to cause an increased risk.

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          Breast cancer: origins and evolution.

          Breast cancer is not a single disease, but rather is composed of distinct subtypes associated with different clinical outcomes. Understanding this heterogeneity is key for the development of targeted cancer-preventative and -therapeutic interventions. Current models explaining inter- and intratumoral diversity are the cancer stem cell and the clonal evolution hypotheses. Although tumor initiation and progression are predominantly driven by acquired genetic alterations, recent data implicate a role for microenvironmental and epigenetic changes as well. Comprehensive unbiased studies of tumors and patient populations have significantly advanced our molecular understanding of breast cancer, but translating these findings into clinical practice remains a challenge.
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            Genomic instability in breast cancer: pathogenesis and clinical implications.

            Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, appreciable by molecular markers, gene-expression profiles, and most recently, patterns of genomic alteration. In particular, genomic profiling has revealed three distinct patterns of DNA copy-number alteration: a "simple" type with few gains or losses of whole chromosome arms, an "amplifier" type with focal high-level DNA amplifications, and a "complex" type marked by numerous low-amplitude changes and copy-number transitions. The three patterns are associated with distinct gene-expression subtypes, and preferentially target different loci in the genome (implicating distinct cancer genes). Moreover, the different patterns of alteration imply distinct underlying mechanisms of genomic instability. The amplifier pattern may arise from transient telomere dysfunction, although new data suggest ongoing "amplifier" instability. The complex pattern shows similarity to breast cancers with germline BRCA1 mutation, which also exhibit "basal-like" expression profiles and complex-pattern genomes, implicating a possible defect in BRCA1-associated repair of DNA double-strand breaks. As such, targeting presumptive DNA repair defects represents a promising area of clinical investigation. Future studies should clarify the pathogenesis of breast cancers with amplifier and complex-pattern genomes, and will likely identify new therapeutic opportunities. (c) 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Ductal carcinoma in situ: terminology, classification, and natural history.

              Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) refers to breast epithelial cells that have become "cancerous" but still reside in their normal place in the ducts and lobules. In this setting, cancerous means that there is an abnormal increase in the growth of the epithelial cells, which accumulate within and greatly expand the ducts and lobules. DCIS is a nonlethal type of cancer because it stays in its normal place. However, DCIS is very important because it is the immediate precursor of invasive breast cancers, which are potentially lethal. This article provides a general overview of DCIS, including historical perspective, methods of classification, current perspective, and future goals.

                Author and article information

                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Comunidad y Salud
                Comunidad y Salud
                Universidad de Carabobo
                June 2015
                : 13
                : 1
                : 78-86
                [1 ] Universidad de Carabobo



                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=1690-3293&lng=en
                HEALTH POLICY & SERVICES

                Health & Social care,Public health
                Breast cancer,hyperplasia,breast pathology,Cáncer de mama,patología mamaria,hiperplasia


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